Europe: Denmark has suspended all rail links with Germany & closed a motorway, due to asylum seekers – Published 10 Sept 2015 1414z (GMT/UTC)

Denmark has suspended all rail links with Germany after police stopped hundreds of migrants at the border. Danish police also closed a motorway between the two countries when some asylum seekers began walking north after being forced off a train. They say their destination is Sweden.

As the EU struggles with a major migrant crisis, the European Commission has proposed that 120,000 additional asylum seekers should be shared out between members, using binding quotas.

Denmark’s DSB rail operator said trains to and from Germany had been suspended for an indefinite period because of exceptional passport checks.

Two trains carrying more than 200 migrants are being held in Rodby, a major port with ferry links to Germany. Danish police say many migrants are refusing to leave the trains because they do not want to be registered in Denmark.

Police also closed part of the E45 motorway – the main road link between Germany and Denmark – after about 300 migrants left another train and set off on foot towards Sweden near the border town of Padborg.

Sweden has become a top destination for refugees after it promised to issue residency papers to all Syrian asylum seekers. Denmark’s new centre-right government has promised to get tough on immigration.

Since its election in June it has slashed benefits for new arrivals and restricted the right to residency. About 3,000 migrants have entered the country since the weekend. Prime Minister Lars Lokke-Rasmussen said Denmark was under pressure as asylum seekers arrive on their way to Sweden.

“This clearly shows that what we are facing right now is not only a refugee problem, it is also a migration problem,” he said. A surge of migrants fleeing conflict and hardship in Africa and the Middle East has pushed north through Europe over the past few weeks.

Many of those escaping the civil war in Syria have travelled from Turkey across the sea to Greece, through Macedonia and Serbia, and then to Hungary from where they aim to reach northern Europe.

On Wednesday European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker announced plans for a “swift, determined and comprehensive” response through a quota system.

In a “state of the union” annual address, he said tackling the crisis was “a matter of humanity and human dignity”. “It’s 160,000 refugees in total that Europeans have to take into their arms and I really hope that this time everyone will be on board,” Mr Juncker told the European Parliament. The new plans would relocate 60% of those now in Italy, Greece and Hungary to Germany, France and Spain.

The numbers allocated to each country would depend on GDP, population, unemployment rate and asylum applications already processed. Countries refusing to take in migrants could face financial penalties.

Thursday, 10 September, 2015 at 03:18 (03:18 AM) UTC RSOE

Europe: Very dangerous weather – ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: LEVEL 3! for parts of POLAND and W BELARUS Damaging wind gusts, large and very hail, excessive precipitation and SIGNIFICANT TORNADO EVENT. – Published 190715 1216z

Storm Forecast

Storm Forecast
Valid: Sun 19 Jul 2015 06:00 to Mon 20 Jul 2015 06:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 19 Jul 2015 00:01
Forecaster: TASZAREK

A level 3 was issued for parts of Poland and W Belarus mainly for the damaging wind gusts, large and very hail, excessive precipitation and significant tornado event.

A level 2 was issued for parts of Germany, Poland, Belarus, NW Ukraine and N Czech Republic mainly for the severe wind gusts, large hail, tornadoes and excessive precipitation.

A level 1 was issued for parts of S Finland and parts of Russia mainly for the large hail and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for parts of UK, Netherlands, S Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, N Italy, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, W Hungary, Belarus and NW Ukraine mainly for the large hail, severe wind gusts and excessive precipitation.

A level 1 was issued for NE Spain mainly for the large hail and excessive precipitation.


Most of the Central, SW, S and SE Europe is covered with highly unstable warm and moist tropical air mass with dew points up to 20C. A ridge extending from Azores up to Iberian Peninsula inhibits convection in this region. Strong capping inversions are also present in the Apennine and most of the Balkan Peninsula. Weakening high is places over Black Sea while the numerous troughs are located over British Isles, Scandinavia and N Russia. Jet streak separating polar and tropical air mass is stretching from the N Atlantic trough England, N Germany and Poland up to Russia. Within this jet, a short-wave with thermal low is predicted to provide a good overlap of instability, moisture, lift and wind shear over parts of Germany, Poland and Belarus.


…Germany, Poland, Belarus, NW Ukraine…

Particularly severe weather is expected in the afternoon hours within the shortwave that will pass these countries in the forecast period and provide the great source of lifting mechanism. An overlap of SB CAPE exceeding 1000-2000 J/kg and DLS over 20-25 m/s in the large area extending from central Germany up to Poland is expected to produce widespread severe weather. Around noon, convection should start over Germany and most likely in the form of the supercell thunderstorms produce damaging wind gusts and large to very large hail. An increased 0-1km SRH over 100 m2/s2 and LLS exceeding 10 m/s cannot rule out tornado occurrence within these cells. In the afternoon hours CI should also take place in W Poland. Since these cells will form in the highly unstable (1500-2000 J/kg) and strongly sheared environment (DLS ~ 25 m/s, MLS ~ 20 m/s, LLS ~ 15 m/s, 0-3km SRH up to 300 m2/s2) with the support of the QG lift, an organized squall line is likely to form. It is likely that such a squall line will contain bow echos and the wind gusts within these may exceed 33 m/s. The transformation into derecho cannot be ruled out. Level 3 denote the area where according to the current understanding and NWP data the movement of this line is the most probable. However, models are not consistent with the direction of the MCS movement, some of them predicts propagation of the squall line to the Belarus, while some of them shifts the system more to the warm air mass. It is possible that an early-hours convection that will pass through N Poland may provide conditions more conducive for MCS turning more to the S. Due to these uncertainties, both scenarios are partially included in the level 3 area. Although the main threat are damaging wind gusts, conditions in the late afternoon hours (when the relative humidity will drop and thus the LCL) will be conducive for tornadoes, especially in the E Poland. An impressive overlap of 0-1km SRH ~ 400 m2/s2 with LLS ~ 12.5 m/s and CAPE ~ 1000 J/kg may result in a significant tornado event if isolated or embedded supercells will be present. These may be possible in the southern flank of the squall line. Within these storms very large hail is also possible. It is predicted that the MCS will enter Belarus and parts of Ukraine in the late evening hours and weaken, but still will be capable of producing severe wind gusts. If derecho will form, the system may be capable of producing damaging wind gusts also in the late evening hours, therefore level 3 is also extended to the parts of Belarus further east. Extreme values of PW (40-45 mm) may also result in a large precipitation amounts on the track of the MCS.

…parts of UK, Denmark, Netherlands, N Germany, Baltic Sea…

Although models predicts very large DLS over these areas (25-30 m/s) they are not as consistent with thermodynamic instability. Thunderstorms that will form within the short-wave may become supercells and create threat for the large hail and severe wind gusts. However, due to limited thermodynamic instability, limited boundary layers moisture content and rather low-topped convection, such a threat deserves only level 1.

…Germany, Switzerland, N Italy, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, W Hungary, Belarus and NW Ukraine…

Locally enhanced DLS up to 15 m/s with CAPE up to 2000-2500 J/kg and rich boundary layer’s moisture (mixing ratio up to 12-13 g/kg) create threat for multicell and supercell thunderstorms where severe wind gusts and large hail are likely. DMC is forecast to start around noon and the storms should weaken in the late evening hours. In the areas where the storm motion is predicted to be very low (DLS below 10 m/s) excessive precipitation and local flash flooding cannot be ruled out, especially in the NW parts of the Italy.

…S Finland, parts of Russia…

Favorable overlap of DLS around 20 m/s and CAPE up to 400-600 J/kg create threat for supercell thunderstorms and thus severe wind gusts and large hail. Uncertainty related to CI, low thermodynamic instability, limited boundary layer’s moisture content and narrow zone where the CAPE overlaps with the favorable shear makes the threat marginal. The highest threat for the occurrence of severe weather falls on the early afternoon hours.

…NE Spain…

Low-level inflow of impressive rich boundary layer’s moisture content (mixing ratios up to 16-18 g/kg) overlapping with steep lapse rates (~ 7 C/km) locally will enhance CAPE values to 2000-2500 J/kg. If thunderstorms will be able to get through the cap, they may be capable of producing large hail. Since the storm motion in this area is predicted to be very low, given the high moisture content excessive precipitation cannot be ruled out.


See also >>>>

Mesoscale Discussion

Mesoscale Discussion
Valid: Sun 19 Jul 2015 11:00 to Sun 19 Jul 2015 14:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 19 Jul 2015 11:51

At 11 UTC a warm front was located along a line from near Leipzig to Poznan to Warsaw. An MCS / area of convective rain over NE Germany has created an outflow boundary that stretches from Berlin to Leipzig.

Along the warm front distinct surface convergence is taking place and low-level humidity is rather high with 18-21 C observed dew points. With 26-30 C surface temperatures, around 1000 – 1500 J/kg of MLCAPE should already be in place.

The Bayreuth, Lindenberg and Doksany profilers and Poznan radar confirm that 20-25 m/s WSW winds are in place at 3-4 km AGL, implying that strong to very strong wind shear is present.

Storms, probably elevated have formed in the Leipzig area and further south across the Czech Republic. It is expected that these storms will move eastward and become surface based. It is possible that storms will rather rapidly develop into a squall-line and that the wind risk will increase rather quickly.

In addition, more storms may form further to the east along the warm front after 13 UTC. Any isolated storms that manage to form will quickly turn into powerful supercells with a risk of large hail and severe wind gusts.

The high (about 300 m2/s2) SREH and anticipated strengthening low-level shear that is in place along and slightly to the north of the warm front suggests that tornadoes cannot be ruled out. However, in most places, the LCL height is rather high for tornadoes with T/Td spreads around 10 C, limiting this risk. An exception is a small area along the warm front where prior rainfall occurrs before the arrival of storms, cooling and moistening the boundary layer.


Up to 700 refugees feared dead after “worst massacre ever seen in the Mediterranean” (UN) – Major search & rescue op under way – Published 190415 1630z (GMT/UTC)


A ship carrying 700 migrants has capsized off the Libyan coast, the Italian news agency Ansa reported on Sunday, adding that many are feared dead.

Coastguard vessels rescued 28 people after the accident was reported around midnight, it said, giving no source for its report. The Times of Malta said migrants rushed to one side of the boat to alert a passing vessel, prompting the ship to capsize. The accident occurred some 200 kilometres south of the Italian island of Lampedusa, the Times of Malta reported. The rescue operation continues.

Sunday, 19 April, 2015 at 11:49 (11:49 AM) UTC RSOE

Other News Reports

Sky News

15:22, UK, Sunday 19 April 2015

Search As Hundreds Of Boat Migrants Feared Dead

The capsizing of a boat, with up to 700 people on board, may be the “worst massacre ever seen in the Mediterranean”, says the UN.

Hundreds of people are feared drowned after a fishing boat trying to smuggle migrants to Europe capsized off Libya, the UN refugee agency says.

A major search and rescue operation by air and sea is taking place after the vessel, with up to 700 on board, went down about 120 miles south of the Italian island of Lampedusa.

It is believed to have overturned when migrants moved to one side of the overcrowded 20-metre long boat in a desperate bid to get off and be rescued as a merchant ship approached.

At least 28 people were saved in the Mediterranean, while there were other reports of 50 survivors.

The alarm was raised at about midnight and the Italian coastguard and navy are continuing to search for survivors.


Mediterranean migrants: Hundreds feared dead after boat capsizes

Media caption Aerial footage from the Italian coastguard shows recovery workers scouring Libyan waters

Hundreds of people are feared to have drowned after a boat carrying up to 700 migrants capsized in the Mediterranean Sea, the Italian coastguard says.

A major rescue operation is under way after the vessel, thought to be just 20m (70ft) long, capsized at midnight local time in Libyan waters south of the Italian island of Lampedusa.

So far 28 people have been rescued and 24 bodies retrieved.

At least 900 other migrants have died crossing the Mediterranean this year.

The UN refugee agency, the UNHCR, said the latest sinking could amount to the largest loss of life during a migrant crossing to Europe.

Live: Follow the latest developments

Italian naval and coastguard ships, the Maltese Navy and cargo vessels, along with three helicopters, are all involved in the rescue operation, 130 miles (210km) off the coast of Lampedusa and 17 miles (27km) from the Libyan coast.

The Italian coastguard’s spokesman told the BBC the operation was still focused on search and rescue, “but in time it will be a search [for bodies] only”.

Mediterranean migrants


Migrants rescued 10-17 April


Migrants died attempting the crossing between 1 Jan and 15 April

  • 31,500 Migrants have arrived from North Africa so far this year
  • 218,000 Estimated to have crossed the Mediterranean in 2014
  • 3,500 Migrants died attempting the crossing last year

The migrants reportedly fell overboard when they rushed to draw the attention of the passing Portuguese merchant ship King Jacob, causing their ship to capsize.

The Italian coastguard says the 28 survivors and 24 bodies are now on its vessel the Gregoretti.

Lampedusa is scrambling to react to the latest horror in the seas off its coastline. Much of the harbour has emptied. Coastguard, customs and fishing boats all left before dawn to help with the rescue.

Marta Bernardini works for the charity Mediterranean Hope, which is based on the island and works with migrants. She told the BBC: “We are very sad. It’s so difficult for us who live and work in Lampedusa every day, to know that a lot of people die in this way, in the Mediterranean Sea.”

Lampedusa is the most southerly point of Italy – nearer Africa than the Italian mainland. Locals say that since January – when the EU took control of patrolling Europe’s maritime borders – between 9,000 and 10,000 migrants have arrived on the island.

There are currently 1,000 migrants in a detention centre on Lampedusa – an island of 5,000 people.

Maltese PM Joseph Muscat said rescuers were “literally trying to find people alive among the dead floating in the water”.

Mr Muscat told the BBC: “What is happening now is of epic proportions. If Europe, if the global community continues to turn a blind eye… we will all be judged in the same way that history has judged Europe when it turned a blind eye to the genocide of this century and last century.”

Pope Francis expressed his “deepest sorrow” over the sinking and appealed to the international community to prevent such incidents from happening again.

Rescuers have so far found few bodies or survivors
An Italian coastguard official looks at the rescue area from the Rome operations room

“These are men and women like us who seek a better life. Hungry, persecuted, injured, exploited, victims of wars. They were looking for happiness,” he said.

It was the Pope’s second appeal in less than 24 hours. On Saturday, he backed a call by Italy for the EU to intervene to stop more lives from being lost.

The EU has been criticised for ending its maritime rescue operation, Mare Nostrum, last year. Some EU members said they could not afford it and expressed concerns that it was encouraging more migrants. The EU now runs a more limited border control operation called Triton.

While Mare Nostrum had a monthly budget of €9.5m ($10.3m; £9.6m) and covered much of the Mediterranean, Triton’s budget is less than a third of that at €2.9m ($3.1m), and its remit extends only into Maltese and Italian waters.

The migrants tried to get the attention of this passing Portuguese vessel
Pope Francis urged international leaders to act decisively to prevent further tragedies

The UNHCR said that migrant boats had carried 13,500 people into Italian waters last week alone.

Justin Forsyth, chief executive of aid group Save the Children, urged the EU to restart rescue operations.

“The scale of what is happening in the Mediterranean is not an accident, it is a direct result of our policy,” he said.

EU foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini said the recent wave of migrant boat disasters was “unacceptable”.

“We have said too many times ‘never again’. Now is time for the European Union as such to tackle these tragedies without delay,” she said.

EU foreign ministers will meet to discuss the migrant issue on Monday.

Last year, a record 170,000 people fleeing poverty and conflict in Africa and the Middle East made the perilous crossing to Italy. Thousands died making the journey.

Recent Mediterranean migrant disasters

Oct 2013: More than 360 people, mostly Eritreans and Somalis, die as their boat sinks off Lampedusa.

Sept 2014: At least 300 migrants drown off Malta when people smugglers ram a boat after its occupants refuse to move to a smaller one. Survivors said it was “mass murder”.

Feb 2015: At least 300 migrants feared drowned as four dinghies get into trouble after leaving Libyan coast in bad weather.

April 12, 2015: Some 400 migrants feared drowned after their vessel capsizes off Libya.

April 19, 2015: About 650 migrants feared drowned as boat capsizes in Libyan waters south of Lampedusa.

RTE News

EU plans meeting after 700 migrants drown off Libyan coast

Sunday 19 April 2015 15.07

1 of 2
Personnel in the control room room of the Italian Coast Guard in Rome help coordinate relief efforts
Personnel in the control room room of the Italian Coast Guard in Rome help coordinate relief efforts
A boat transporting migrants arrives in the port of Messina yesterday after a rescue operation at sea
A boat transporting migrants arrives in the port of Messina yesterday after a rescue operation at sea

The European Union said it is organising an urgent meeting of foreign and interior ministers after the latest migrant boat disaster in the Mediterranean was feared to have killed up to 700 people.

In a statement, the European Commission said: “For as long as there is war and hardship in our neighbourhood near and far, people will continue to seek a safe haven on European shores.

“And as long as countries of origin and transit do not take action to prevent these desperate trips, people will continue to put their lives at risk.”
Full story here:

Italy PM: Don’t leave us to deal with migrant crisis alone

Italy’s Prime Minister Matteo Renzi has urged other European countries not to leave his country alone in dealing with the increasing number of migrants being trafficked across the Mediterranean.

Speaking after a shipwreck which is estimated to have left hundreds of people dead, Renzi said Italy often works alone in saving migrants by both blocking trafficking from Libya and rescuing those that are left stranded at sea.

Last updated Sun 19 Apr 2015

Europe: Severe weather inc tornadoes forecast for E France and S Germany (Estofex) – Published 250814 2215z (GMT/UTC)

European forecaster Estofex issues level 2 Storm Forecast for E France and S Germany…..

Storm Forecast

Forecast provided by ESTOFEX

Storm Forecast
Valid: Tue 26 Aug 2014 06:00 to Wed 27 Aug 2014 06:00 UTC
Issued: Mon 25 Aug 2014 21:17
Forecaster: SCHLENCZEK

A level 2 was issued for E France and S Germany mainly for tornadoes and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for NE/E France, Belgium, Luxembourg, S-central Germany and W Czech mainly for severe wind gusts and to a lesser extent for tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for S UK for a chance of tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for parts of the North Sea and Baltic Sea for spout-type tornadoes.


… SE UK, NE / E France, SW / central Germany …

A dissipating low pressure system over the British Isles which continues eastwards advects warm and unstable air into W / central Europe. A few hundred J/kg of SBCAPE are forecast consistently in the warm sector by the past runs of GFS and ECMWF, at least partly overlapping with 15 – 25 m/s of 0-6 km bulk shear. T/Td is forecast around 20/16 °C for SW Germany which leads to low LCL heights. Convection should fire up in the late morning / early afternoon hours even though there is some subsidence over the central parts of Germany from the upper ridge. Combined with enhanced LL shear and SRH1, this may allow a few tornadoes. Further north, LL shear is weaker but the background wind field should be intense enough to support isolated severe wind gusts mainly from downward transfer of momentum. Local heavy precipitation is possible but fast storm motion should preclude a risk of flooding in most cases.

Over UK, there is very weak LL shear forecast in the afternoon hours but a weak background flow should support some spout-type tornadoes.

… N Germany, Denmark, N Poland, S Scandinavia and Baltic Sea region…

Sufficient buoyancy and weak background winds enhance the chance for long-lasting convergent flow in the vicinity of convective storms and may lead to funnels which could end up in spout-type tornadoes. The greatest chance for landspouts / waterspouts exists around Denmark and N Poland. Further north, deep layer shear is also quite weak but the stronger background flow will likely disturb the formation of funnels / tornadoes.

Some regions with locally enhanced LL shear exist over Finland but overall instability is likely too low to support a tornado threat covered by a LVL1.

… NW Italy and Mediterranean Sea…

A plume of unstable air is advected from the Balearic Islands towards Italy. It will likely remain strongly capped but in case of convective initiation, isolated storms may profit from 20 – 25 m/s of 0-6 km bulk shear and could develop mesocyclones. Overall threat is likely too marginal for a threat level as the capping inversion is likely too strong for storm development.


Do not use any information on this site for life or death decisions. All information is intended as supplementary to official sources. Kindly refer to your country’s official weather agency/government website for local warnings, advisories and bulletins.

Europe: Euro-forecaster Estofex issues Level 2 Storm Forecast for N Italy – Published 290614 1700z

Storm Forecast

Forecast provided by ESTOFEX (Click image to go to source)

Storm Forecast
Valid: Sun 29 Jun 2014 06:00 to Mon 30 Jun 2014 06:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 29 Jun 2014 04:22
Forecaster: VAN DER VELDE

A level 2 was issued for N Italy mainly for severe convective wind gusts, large hail and excessive convective precipitation.

A level 1 was issued for parts of central Europe mainly for large hail.


The cold front associated with a large amplitude mid level trough from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean Sea is pushing eastward through Italy and central Europe today. Surface level lows reside over southern Scandinavia and northern Italy. Cold airmass thunderstorms are likely over France, Benelux and western Germany. The prefrontal airmass over Italy is moderately unstable due to the presence of the Saharan Air Layer with steep mid level lapse rates and 10-12 g/kg moist boundary layer air. Strong winds in mid levels create a favorable kinematic environment for storms.


…Italy, southern Austria and western Balkan…

Some regional WRF models predict over 2500 J/kg SBCAPE over the Lgurian Sea. MLCAPE should be 1000-2000 J/kg. This will be capped south of the Po valley. Either way, given the 20 m/s deep layer shear and strong moisture lifting over the south slopes of the Alps triggering of supercells and MCSes is highly probable, with chances of widespread large to very large hail and severe wind gusts. During the evening as the cold front comes through, the model scenario (GFS, WRF) is that some discrete supercells or a linear system will also affect the area south of the Po valley. The area of Austria to Croatia will likely see the strongest moisture lift and largest storms, and can become affected by excessive convective rainfall, at least locally. The PV/dynamic tropopause intrusion acquires a negative tilt at night which might help to keep the storms active for long in the region near Slovenia, although WRF models keep the storms moving. Tornadoes are not ruled out with pre-Alpine 0-1 km shear of 8 m/s and locally higher.

…Hungary, N and E Austria, Czechia, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania…

Relatively modest MLCAPE should exist in a broad area from Hungary/Austria to the Baltics. The presence of 10-15 m/s deep layer shear could develop persistent and rotating updrafts which can locally release large hail. The frontal convergence zone in the Austrian-Hungarian-Czechian borders region should be the main focus for convective development, another is NE Poland and Lithuania near the occlusion.

…southern Sweden and Norway…

Some instability is present within the low. Low cloud bases and slow cell motion combined with good low-level buoyancy and convergence zones are found mainly over southern Sweden. Such conditions are favorable for spout type tornadoes and funnels.


France: Euro-forecaster Estofex issues Mesoscale Discussion – potential for tornadoes – Published 280614 1638z

Mesoscale Discussion

Mesoscale Discussion
Valid: Sat 28 Jun 2014 14:00 to Sat 28 Jun 2014 21:00 UTC
Issued: Sat 28 Jun 2014 14:39
Forecaster: VAN DER VELDE

…France to Southwestern Germany…

A surface low pressure center lies currently (14Z) at the west coast of France (Bordeaux). A large Atlantic upper trough moves into the region and will provide destabilization of the mid and upper levels, which is needed as 12Z soundings still show inversions at 900 and 450 hPa. A stationary frontal zone is well-defined by thermal gradients and a sharp wind shift (NE/S) running from some 100km north of Bordeaux to Stuttgart approximately.

Observed surface mixing ratios in France vary at 13Z between 10.5 and 13 g/kg with potential temperatures ranging between 26 and 32ーC, the higher values over the Massif Central.
Inserting these values into Bordeaux and Nimes 12Z soundings, the cap can be bypassed in some locations and some 1000 J/kg SBCAPE could be obtained, but MLCAPE will be lower and mixed parcels may have some trouble with the cap.

In fact, satellite shows initiation over northern Massif Central oriented SW-NE and along the front in the west (WSW-ENE). The storms will grow in a strong kinematic environment with large but relatively straight hodographs. Observed Bordeaux 600 hPa wind is 60 kts with 40 kts at 900 hPa. This directly translates into a primary threat of severe convective wind gusts, especially as cold pools join into an MCS. Deep layer shear values of 15-20 m/s and SREH of 150 mイ/sイ initially and over 250 mイ/sイ predicted by GFS at 18Z (SW France) support supercells. 0-1 km shear ranges from 10 m/s in the afternoon to over 15 m/s during the evening (GFS). Together with relatively low LCL (descending to <1000 m in the evening) this underlines potential for tornadoes, and supports bow echoes. Large hail will be possible as well, but the upper level inversion represents a mixed phase region without much buoyancy which could be a limiting factor.

After 18Z the mid level cold front comes in from the west and will likely trigger storms in SW France moving upscale to a somewhat parallel-stratiform MCS over the southeastern quarter of France (this will happen beyond the validity time of this MD).

Europe: ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Level 2 for S Italy and Albania/Macedonia. Valid until Weds 180614 0600Z – Published 170614 1540z

Storm Forecast

Storm Forecast
Valid: Tue 17 Jun 2014 06:00 to Wed 18 Jun 2014 06:00 UTC
Issued: Mon 16 Jun 2014 23:01
Forecaster: GATZEN

A level 2 was issued for southern Italy and Albania/Macedonia mainly for large hail, severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for northern Tunisia, central and southern Italy, Adriatic and northern Ionian Sea, northern Greece and southern Balkans into Bulgaria, Romania and Moldova mainly for large hail and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for eastern Iberia and the Gulf of Valencia mainly for large hail and severe wind gusts.


Atlantic high continues without a weakening tendency. Arctic air masses will spread into Scandinavia and western Russia at the eastern flank of this high. Polar air masses that have spread into most of Europe will warm in response to diurnal heating, and slightly decreasing moisture and lapse rates can be observed to the south-west of a new cold front that enters the Ukraine, Poland, and eastern Germany in the afternoon and evening hours. A few storms can develop especially below the axis of the long-wave trough from Germany across the Alps, southern France, into eastern Iberia.

Ahead of the long-wave trough, a west-south-westerly flow will establish from northern Tunisia to the Aegean and Black Sea region. An elevated mixed layer will spread into the east Mediterranean, affecting the Ionian and Aegean Sea. Weak frontogenesis to the south of Italy will additionally allow for moisture increase in the boundary-layer, but the capping inversion is forecast to remain quite strong.


Southern Italy and Adriatic, southern Balkans, Bulgaria and surroundings

Within the south-westerly jet, a jet streak ejects from the base of the long-wave trough and spreads across the east Mediterranean into Greece. Several vorticity maxima will travel into the forecast area on Tuesday.

The affected air mass is characterized by a rather cool boundary layer air mass with moisture pooling over some regions. Best moisture will evolve over southern Italy ahead of an approaching cold front as well as along a frontal boundary from Serbia to Bulgaria, where low-level convergence exists. Diurnal heating and increasing lapse rates will likely allow for CAPE during the day.

A few rounds of storms are expected to spread east on Tuesday, with widespread storms over central Italy and from the central Balkans to the Black Sea. With 20 m/s deep layer vertical wind shear, especially the southern regions will see well-organized storms, and supercells and bow echoes are forecast. Main threat will be large hail and severe wind gusts with these storms, although excessive rain and a tornado are not ruled out.

Further south, storm initiation is not that probable given the large inversion atop of the boundary-layer. Diurnal heating may support storms over southern Italy and parts of Greece, and some isolated supercells are forecast, capable of producing large hail. These storms may weaken after sunset.

Eastern Iberia

Along the sea-breeze convergence, easterly onshore-winds will allow for upslope flow and moisture advection over eastern Iberia. Steep lapse rates spreading east from the Iberian mountains will overlap with this moisture and CAPE is forecast. Initiation is most likely over the mountains and storms may move east later on. A capping inversion near the sea will likely limit the storm potential. However, near the sea-breeze convergence, 15 m/s deep layer vertical wind shear can support mesocyclones. Large hail will be possible with these storms as well as severe wind gusts, especially when storms will interact with deep boundary layers from the south-west. Convection is forecast to decay after sunset.

West Mediterranean

Near the base of the trough, rather rich low-level moisture and rather steep lapse rates will create some CAPE. Storms are forecast due to some low-level convergence and weal CIN. Given weak vertical wind shear, degree of organization will be weak over most places. Locally large hail and excessive precipitation are not ruled out with the slow moving storms. When clusters can develop, isolated wind reports are not ruled out as well.

The best potential for better storm organization exists south of the Balearic Islands. Stronger deep layer vertical wind shear is expected to support supercells or bow echoes, capable of producing large hail and severe wind gusts. The overall threat is rather weak, though, given the weak instability, low-level vertical wind shear, and lift.

Mesoscale Discussion

Mesoscale Discussion
Valid: Tue 17 Jun 2014 14:00 to Tue 17 Jun 2014 17:00 UTC
Issued: Tue 17 Jun 2014 14:39
Forecaster: PISTOTNIK

Convective initiation is currently concentrating along a seabreeze / upslope flow convergence over Central Italy. Coastal areas see dewpoints between 19 and 22C, which yields CAPE values between 1000 and 1500 J/kg according to the 12 UTC Brindisi and (modified) Pratica di Mare soundings.

In the Northern half of the area, deep-layer shear decreases and the background flow starts turning to the Northeast, pushing the convergence zone towards the West coast. Satellite imagery confirms some backbuilding multicells, which pose a risk of heavy rain and large hail.
Further South, storms are stationary or even moving Eastward, and deep-layer shear around 20 m/s beneath the mid-level jetstreak enables good organisation into multi- and supercells. Very low cloud bases and strong low-level shear in the sea breeze regime along the italian East coast hint at a remarkably enhanced tornado risk (refer to the recent Bari metars with 24/22C and Northeasterly surface winds around 7 m/s). Otherwise, large hail and severe wind gusts are possible, as well as flash flood producing rain in case of backbuilding.

Storms continue to travel eastward or form anew along a flow-parallel extension of this convergence line across the Southern Adriatic Sea into Northern Albania and Southern Montenegro. This pattern has already continued for 18 hours and has produced extreme flash floods in parts of Albania. This risk will still continue in the next hours. If stronger updrafts move onshore, all other kinds of severe weather are possible as well.



Europe: Very dangerous weather – ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: LEVEL 3! for NW France & BENELUX for very large hail, damaging wind gusts, tornadoes & excessive precipitation – Published 080614 2310z


ESTOFEX Storm Forecast

Embedded image permalink

Storm Forecast
Valid: Mon 09 Jun 2014 06:00 to Tue 10 Jun 2014 06:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 08 Jun 2014 22:31
Forecaster: PUCIK

A level 3 was issued for NW France and BENELUX for very large hail, damaging wind gusts, tornadoes and excessive precipitation.

A level 2 was issued for much of France and NW Germany mainly for very large hail and damaging wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for England mainly for severe wind gusts and large hail.

A level 1 was issued for E Germany and Poland mainly for large hail and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for parts of Russia and Ukraine mainly for large hail and severe wind gusts.


In between of the deep low over the Atlantic and the ridge over Central Europe, strong southerly to southwesterly flow will advect hot airmass characterised by steep mid-level lapse rates from N Africa towards France, Germany and then around the ridge towards Poland. Potentially dangerous situation will evolve over France, BENELUX and NW Germany just ahead of the diffuse, wavy frontal boundary that will remain quasistationary close to French coastline during the most of the day. Another low will slowly dig SE-wards across NW Russia. Moderate to strong NW-ly flow is simulated at its southwestern flank. With prevailing low geopotentials over much of Eastern Europe, so scattered DMC is expected also there, albeit severe threat will be smaller than in case of France / BENELUX.


… France towards BENELUX and NW Germany …

Very dangerous setup will develop over the region by the late afternoon hours. With pronounced overlap of low-level moisture and steep mid-tropospheric lapse rates, models agree on the development of high to extreme CAPE values, with Central France towards BENELUX and NW Germany having the highest odds of seeing 3000 J/kg of MLCAPE by the late evening. As 500 hPa winds between 15 to 25 m/s overlap with backed low-level flow thanks to the presence of the surface trough, strong DLS (20-25 m/s) is forecast. By the late evening, with the enhancement of the low-level wind field with deepening trough, SREH values will increase especially over NW France / BENELUX (with values over 300 m2/s2 possible). Such setup will be very conducive for intense supercells / bow-echoes, capable of very large hail and damaging wind gusts. Towards the evening (beyond 18 UTC), as LLS strengthens, tornadoes will become a threat as well, especially if isolated supercells manage to persist into this time frame.

However, models do not simulate any pronounced QG forcing to rapidly reduce CIN. This will, on one hand, allow for CAPE to build-up steadily towards the late afternoon. On the other hand, it is highly questionable how many storms will initiate and where exactly. There is considerable disagreement by individual models. Overnight / morning convection, along with the outflow boundaries laid by these may be crucial in this setup. Current thinking is, that the foci for late afternoon initiation will be NW France, along the surface convergence zone, with storms spreading into BENELUX. It is likely that these storms will be isolated supercells at first, with subsequent clustering resulting in a fast forward propagating bow-echo. Towards the night, Southern to Central France may see convective initiation, with another possiblity of MCS travelling north towards N France.

Level 3 was introduced for the region, where the highest probability of high storm coverage is forecast and where high density of extremely severe events is most likely. With that in mind, any spot in the Level 2 may see extremely severe storms in these highly favourable conditions, provided storms can initiate.

… England …

Models show that somewhat warmer, moist airmass should advect over E England as the wave in the frontal boundary propagates towards northwest. However, edge of the EML plume should remain to the east, so that MLCAPE values will stay on the order of hundreds of J/kg. As strong flow ovespreads the region, over 25 m/s of DLS is forecast. All models agree on initiation along the lifting warm wave of the boundary. There will be a potential for isolated supercell development, which would be capable of large hail and severe wind gusts. However, lack of steep mid-level lapse rates may limit the hail threat, so that a high-end Lvl 1 instead of Lvl 2 is issued.

… Poland …

As EML is advected around the ridge towards east, overlap with modest low-level moisture will contribute to the development of moderate instability, with MLCAPE values above 1000 J/kg. Vertical wind shear should be moderate, between 10 to 15 m/s of bulk shear in the 0-6 km layer, increasing NEwards to between 14 and 20 m/s. Some strong multicells (or perhaps even brief supercells) may initiate along the ill-defined warm front with attendant threats of large hail and severe wind gusts.

… Russia …

With the progressing cut-off low, a plume of steep lapse rates will be pushed southeastwards, but still, the extreme eastern part of the forecast area may see some stronger multicells capable of large hail and/or severe wind gusts. Wind shear should be weak to moderate, perhaps limiting the supercell threat (and very large hail risk).

Mesoscale Discussion

Mesoscale Discussion
Valid: Mon 09 Jun 2014 10:00 to Tue 10 Jun 2014 15:00 UTC
Issued: Mon 09 Jun 2014 09:48
Forecaster: PUCIK

Abundant DMC activity is already ongoing in the morning hours. Most of this activity is likely elevated with risk for large hail in the environment of steep lapse rates. The first cluster is now situated over Belgium moving towards Netherlands. Second one is located over NW France with similar movement direction. As daytime heating continues ahead of these clusters with easterly to southeasterly moist surface flow (dewpoints between 18 and 20 ーC), this activity may eventually become surface-based, especially at the eastern flank of the systems. That would rapidly increase chances for supercellular convection capable of very large hail and damaging wind gusts.

To the east and south of the ongoing convective systems, diurnal heating along with backing low-level flow is observed. Further backing of the low-level flow is forecast as surface pressure falls over Southern France. Current thinking is that despite this early activity, best conditions will still develop by the late afternoon with high CAPE values and strong DLS.


(Click image for link)



Do not use any information on this site for life or death decisions. All information is intended as supplementary to official sources. Kindly refer to your country�s official weather agency/government website for local warnings, advisories and bulletins.

Europe: ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Level 2 for western Italy and east Adriatic coast mainly for excessive convective precipitation and tornadoes. Valid until Mon 111113 0600Z – Published 111113 1900z

(Scorrere verso il basso per la traduzione in italiano)(Scroll down for Italian translation)

European forecaster ESTOFEX has issued the following….

Storm Forecast



Storm Forecast
Valid: Sun 10 Nov 2013 06:00 to Mon 11 Nov 2013 06:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 10 Nov 2013 01:21
Forecaster: VAN DER VELDE


A level 2 was issued for western Italy and the east Adriatic coast mainly for excessive convective precipitation and tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for Italy and west Balkan coast mainly for excessive convective precipitation, severe wind gusts and tornadoes.


A highly meridional flow pattern has developed over Europe. Cold air is transported with northerly winds over Western Europe into the Mediterranean while the eastern Atlantic is dominated by a vast warm sector of a low near Iceland. Over Italy a Genua Low develops rapidly as result of strong advection of potential vorticity over the Alps. It should deepen from 1008 hPa initially to 996 hPa by 03Z, by which time it shifted to central Italy.


…western Italy…

After 15Z, according to the GFS run of 18Z, a deep PV anomaly intrudes the Ligurian Sea. Various models indicate there is not a great amount of CAPE (<500 J/kg), but the strong forcing along the leading edge of the anomaly and cold front is thought to trigger a line of thunderstorms with a motion vector around 25 m/s. The primary risk would be severe wind gusts. There should be around 15 m/s deep layer shear which may generate some rotating updrafts. Over central Italy (land) friction of the strong flow creates more than 15 m/s low level shear but storm-relative winds do not look healthy for tornadic supercells. Waterspouts (tornadoes generated by spin-up of vertical vorticity) should occur in various places across the thunder/level 1 area, though. While storm motion seems fast, a threat of excessive convective rain is present as moist flow running into higher terrain should trigger new cells continuously, with backbuilding. As the PV anomaly slows down to install itself over the Tyrrhenean Sea during early Monday morning, southwestern Italy should see more stalled storms with excessive rain amounts. Because CAPE is a limiting factor, the level 2 might be somewhat optimistic.

…east Adriatic coast…

Particularly the high resolution WRF models develop persistent storms in the afternoon onwards, from Slovenia to Albania. Some should surf the flow over orography and the edge of the PV anomaly should linger parallel to the coast, helping regenerate instability and cyclogenesis over the northern Adriatic, increasing excessive rainfall chances. It appears that SREH is better due to more curvature in the low level hodograph which should aid supercells. Waterspouts are very likely, some may be of mesocyclonic origin.

…western Greece…

A plume of higher CAPE over 1000 J/kg advects over the Ionean Sea into Greece and a weak cold front after 18Z should allow triggering of storms, perhaps supercells given the better model hodographs. As buoyancy is stronger here with altitude, large hail seems more likely.

Italian (Translated by Google)

Europea meteorologo ESTOFEX ha rilasciato la seguente ….
Previsione tempesta


Previsione tempesta
Validi: dom 10 novembre 2013 06:00 alle Lun 11 Nov 2013 06:00 UTC
Rilasciato : Sun 10 Nov 2013 01:21
Sulle previsioni : VAN DER VELDE

A livello 2 è stato rilasciato per l’Italia occidentale e la costa orientale adriatica soprattutto per eccessiva precipitazione e trombe d’aria convettivo .

Un livello 1 è stato emesso per l’Italia e la costa occidentale dei Balcani principalmente per eccessiva precipitazione convettiva , gravi raffiche di vento e trombe d’aria .


Un modello di flusso altamente meridionale si è sviluppato in Europa . L’aria fredda viene trasportata con venti settentrionali in Europa occidentale nel Mediterraneo , mentre l’Atlantico orientale è dominata da un vasto settore caldo di una bassa vicino Islanda . Nel corso Italia a Genova Low sviluppa rapidamente come risultato della forte avvezione di vorticità potenziale sulle Alpi . Dovrebbe approfondire dal 1008 hPa inizialmente a 996 hPa da 03Z , momento in cui si è spostata al centro Italia .


occidentale … Italia …

Dopo 15Z , secondo il run GFS 18Z di una profonda anomalia PV intromette sul Mar Ligure. Vari modelli indicano che non vi è una grande quantità di CAPE ( < 500 J / kg) , ma il forte forzando lungo il bordo di entrata della anomalia e fronte freddo è pensato per innescare una linea di temporali con un vettore di movimento di circa 25 m / s . Il rischio principale sarebbe grave raffiche di vento . Ci dovrebbe essere intorno ai 15 m / s strato profondo taglio che può generare alcuni correnti ascensionali rotanti. Il centro Italia ( terra ), l’attrito del flusso forte crea più di 15 m / s di taglio basso livello ma tempesta relativi venti di non guardare sano per supercelle tornadic . Trombe marine ( trombe d’aria generate da spin- up di vorticità verticale) devono avvenire in diversi luoghi in tutto il tuono / livello 1 zona , però. Mentre movimento temporale sembra veloce , una minaccia di eccessiva pioggia convettiva è presente come flusso umido in esecuzione in un terreno più elevato dovrebbe innescare nuove cellule in continuo , con backbuilding . Come l’ anomalia PV rallenta di installarsi sul Mar Tirreno durante Lunedi mattina presto , sud-ovest Italia dovrebbe vedere le tempeste più bloccata con eccessive quantità di pioggia . Perch CAPE è un fattore limitante , il livello 2 potrebbe essere un po ‘ ottimista.

est … costa adriatica …

In particolare i modelli ad alta risoluzione WRF sviluppano tempeste persistenti nei pomeriggio in poi , dalla Slovenia all’Albania . Alcuni dovrebbero navigare flusso sopra orografia e il bordo della anomalia fotovoltaico dovrebbe soffermarsi parallelo alla costa , aiutando rigenerare instabilità e ciclogenesi sull’Adriatico settentrionale , l’aumento delle precipitazioni eccessive possibilità . Sembra che SREH è migliore grazie alla maggiore curvatura nella odografo basso livello che dovrebbe aiutare supercelle . Trombe marine sono molto probabilmente , alcuni possono essere di origine mesocyclonic .

occidentale … Grecia …

Un pennacchio di maggiore CAPE oltre 1000 J / kg advects sul Mar Ionio in Grecia e di un fronte freddo debole dopo 18Z dovrebbe consentire l’attivazione di tempeste , forse supercelle in virtù delle migliori hodographs modello . Come galleggiabilità è più forte qui con l’altitudine , grandine di grandi dimensioni sembra più probabile .

Europe: ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Level 2 for NW France, S Germany, Czechia, N Switzerland and N Austria mainly for severe convective wind gusts and tornadoes. Valid until 281013 06:00 UTC – 271013 1000z

Storm Forecast



Storm Forecast
Valid: Sun 27 Oct 2013 06:00 to Mon 28 Oct 2013 06:00 UTC
Issued: Sun 27 Oct 2013 05:14
Forecaster: VAN DER VELDE

A level 2 was issued for northeastern France, southern Germany, Czechia, northern Switzerland and northern Austria mainly for severe convective wind gusts and tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for parts of France, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Czech Republic, Poland, as well as Ireland, mainly for severe convective wind gusts and tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for western France and southern UK for severe convective gust and tornado chances after midnight.


A large depression centered west of Scotland has transported a broad plume of relatively warm low level air deep into Europe. A sharp shortwave trough dramatically visible in IPV fields is racing from western France to eastern Poland during the period. Together with a northwesterly jet axis left exit region, it forces rising air with steepening lapse rates between central France and the Netherlands in the morning, which shifts into Germany during the afternoon and Czechia/Poland in the evening. Thedynamic tropopause(PV)/jet axis intersection region moves just north of the Alps. There is a strong wind field with a corridor over southern Germany with >30 m/s winds in the lowest kilometers.
Late in the night, a side disturbance of the main low arrives in the English Channel region with signs of rapid cyclogenesis en-route to Denmark, producing gale conditions on Monday.



In the first 6 hours of the period, convection and conditions of strong low-level winds and shear 15-20 m/s are present. The jetstream passes over the southern half of Ireland. Expect some convective gusts greater than 25 m/s. An isolated tornado cannot be ruled out as well.

…western France, southern UK…

This region will be affected by two disturbances in 24 hours. At 06Z, unstable air under the influence of the shortwave trough is present as well as 25 m/s mean winds in the low levels, and some 20 m/s 0-1 km shear. Mesoscale convective development is not yet expected to begin, but these conditions combined with low LCL heights can lead to tornadoes, aside from severe wind gusts.
After 00/03Z, the cold front of the second low comes in. It seems to become somewhat convectively active, likely as a forced convective line (there is little CAPE and EL at only -15), this time with 30-40 m/s mean winds in the low levels over NW France capable of producing damaging gusts at the ground. The front bends back over the southern UK with less strong wind field but enhanced shear and instability sufficient for a tornado or two. The 00Z GFS run predicts the low to take a much more northerly and faster course with more stable conditions than the 18Z run.

…northeastern France to southwestern Poland…

Synoptic and mesoscale lifting appears to increase in tyhe GFS model over northern France and enhance CAPE to about 200 J/kg. A linear PV intrusion is likely to shape the convection as a line, although WRF models suggest more cellular/short line segment modes instead. Indeed even in the GFS model there is a large region of deep convergence but no sharp line at the surface. The jet exit region affects most directly the zone immediately north of the Alps. In entire southern Germany more than 20 m/s of 0-1 km shear should exist, which aids tornadogenesis (with >250 m²/s² of 0-3 km SREH also predicted) and bow echoes with strong to very strong gusts during convective storms. The 00Z GFS run predicts the same timing as the 18Z run but with the PV intrusion displaced slightly to the north, as well as more positive rather than negative tilt.

Europe: ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Level 1 for Portugal, W Spain, Bay of Biscay, & SW British Isles mainly for tornadoes and excessive rain valid until to 251013 0600Z.- 241013 1425Z

Storm Forecast



Storm Forecast
Valid: Thu 24 Oct 2013 06:00 to Fri 25 Oct 2013 06:00 UTC
Issued: Wed 23 Oct 2013 22:44
Forecaster: GATZEN

A level 1 was issued for Portugal, western Spain, Bay of Biscay, and south-western British Isles mainly for tornadoes and excessive rain.


South-westerly flow continues across Europe given rather weak geopotential across the Atlantic Ocean. An embedded short-wave trough will move from southern Scandinavia to the Baltic States, affecting Germany and even the Adriatic Sea with its trough axis. Cold air will spread into central Europe in the wake of this trough. From the west, a weak ridge will follow that affects especially France during the daytime. A new Atlantic trough will enter western Europe until the end of the period.

Ahead of the central European short-wave trough, a tongue of moist and locally unstable air spreads into eastern Europe. Low-level moisture will also increase across western Europe. Steep lapse rates are expected from the Mediterranean to the central Balkans. The central European trough will provide DCVA across the Mediterranean and northern/eastern Europe, whereas warm air advection will increase across Iberia and France late in the period.


Portugal and western Spain, Bay of Biscay, south-western British Isles

Ahead of the new approaching trough, another tongue of warm subtropical air spreads into western Europe. Low-level moisture will reach more than 10 g/kg. Whereas rather weak lift is expected near the ridge axis from eastern Spain to southern France, a couple of vort-maxima will travel north-east from Portugal across the Bay of Biscay into south-western Ireland and England. Late in the period, a strong 30 m/s mid-level jet streak will spread across the Bay of Biscay.

Given this strong DCVA and WAA over the region, large ageostrophic flow and low-level convergence is expected. Excessive rain seems to be quite likely from Portugal into the British Isles. In the wake of the leading warm front, lapse rates will increase due to lift along the cyclonically-sheared flank of the jet, and CAPE is forecast.

Current thinking is that thunderstorms will first affect Portugal and will spread north-east, reaching south-west England at the end of the period. Storms will be capable of producing excessive rain. Tornadoes will be an additional threat due to the strong low-level vertical wind shear and low LCL heights. A strong tornado is not ruled out. Tornado potential is expected to spread into the central British Isles on Friday (after the forecast period).

North Mediterranean to southern Austria and Slovakia

The central European trough will pass by leaving a cold front that becomes quasi-stationary at the flank of the south-east European ridge. To the south of the front, a warm and well-mixed airmass with steep lapse rates will affect the Balkans. Along the frontal boundary, a tongue of rich low-level moisture will spread into eastern Europe with 0-1 km mixing ratio exceeding 9 g/kg from northern Italy to Hungary and Slovakia. This moisture will partly overlap with the good lapse rates, resulting in CAPE.

Main uncertainty is the low-level buoyancy due to diurnal heating. The highest potential of storms clearly exists across the Mediterranean Sea in the morning hours, and numerous storms are expected to go on from the Ligurian Sea to the northern Adriatic. Due to the slowly eastward movement of the upper trough, storms will gradually spread south-east into the Tyrrhenian Sea and central Adriatic. Some storms may also evolve across northern and central Italy in the noon/afternoon hours, but low-level stable air masses will limit the potential over most places.

The storms that form across southern Europe will be affected by weak shear. Therefore, well organized storms are not forecast. However, an isolated excessive rain event or a waterspout is not ruled out.

Further north-east, storms are expected to develop along the frontal boundary in the noon and afternoon hours. Main limiting factor will be again the weak low-level buoyancy and CIN may be too large for initiation. Storms that my form can become severe given 15 to 20 m/s 0-3 km vertical wind shear. Especially Mesocyclones may produce large hail and severe wind gusts. The potential decreases from Austria to Slovakia, but a few events are expected. Storms will rapidly weaken after sunset.


Meteoalarm – severe weather warnings for Europe

UK SEVERE WEATHER and FLOOD WARNINGS Updated 24 Oct 20131345z

Europe: ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Level 1 for parts of France, Benelux, Germany, Italy and Iberia valid until 241013 0600Z. Tornadoes, Heavy rain and hail possible – 231013 1348z

Storm Forecast

Storm Forecast
Valid: Wed 23 Oct 2013 06:00 to Thu 24 Oct 2013 06:00 UTC
Issued: Tue 22 Oct 2013 21:15
Forecaster: PUCIK

A level 1 was issued for Central France, BENELUX and Northwestern Germany mainly for tornadoes and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for Southern France and Northern Italy mainly for excessive precipitation and tornadoes.

A level 1 was issued for Western Iberia mainly for excessive precipitation.


General macrosynoptic pattern will remain more or less the same as during the previous days – a broad southwesterly flow is forecast over much of Western and Central Europe situated between deep trough over the Atlantic and ridge over Eastern Europe. This trough will translate towards northeast, slightly de-amplifying the ridge but no major reconfiguration is expected. Unseasonably warm airmass has spread all the way up to Southern Scandinavia, while a weak CAA is expected behind the insignificant cold front that will move from France towards Germany. Another significant trough will approach the Iberian penninsula towards the Thursday morning hours.


… Central, NE France, BENELUX, NW Germany …

With cooler, moist airmass overspreading the region, low LCLs are forecast. Only moderately steep mid-level lapse rates will very likely limit the instability build-up, so that only few hundreds J/kg of CAPE are expected at best. Strong, unidirectional wind shear is simulated, with much of the shear within the lowest 1 km, yielding LLS values between 10-15 m/s in the region. With the belt of enhanced PV approaching the area, scattered DMC will initiate. In the strong shear regime, low-topped supercells are well possible, capable of severe wind gusts, tornadoes or some mostly sub-severe hail.

… S France, N / NW Italy ….

In the strong southwesterly flow, a belt of steep mid-level lapse rates is forecast to advect over the Mediterranean Sea along with moist low-level airmass. Moist flow experiencing uplift near the coastline or near the Alps will likely initiate widespread DMC – possibly featuring one or more MCS. In case of the training pattern, moist conditions might enhance precipitation efficiency and locally excessive rainfall is expected. Threat will shift from Southern France towards Northern Italy. MCS will likely start building southwards towards the unstable airmass during the Wednesday night hours. Enhanced low level shear near the coastline along with low cloud bases also point at the elevated tornado risk in the region, albeit this threat should be less prominent than the precipitation risk.

… W Iberia …

During the late afternoon / evening hours, tongue of moist and unstable airmass ahead of the trough is expected to initiate widespread DMC near the coastline. With strong low level convergence and enhanced mixing ratios, isolated excessive precipitation event is quite possible. Tornadoes can not be ruled out in this setup with stronger low level shear inland, albeit CAPE here will be likely mostly elevated, thus possibly rendering this shear ineffective.


Severe Weather Warnings for Europe. Orange Alerts for Switzerland, France, Italy and Netherlands

Albania/Algeria/Tunisia/Mediterranean/Italy/Greece: Severe Weather including Tornado risk.ESTOFEX Storm Forecast: Levels 1 & 2 issued. Valid 101013 0600Z -111013 0600Z – Published 091013 2310z

Storm Forecast

European forecaster, ESTOFEX has issued the following forecast for severe weather:

Storm Forecast
Valid: Thu 10 Oct 2013 06:00 to Fri 11 Oct 2013 06:00 UTC
Issued: Wed 09 Oct 2013 22:39
Forecaster: GATZEN


A level 2 was issued for western Albania and surroundings mainly for excessive precipitation.

A level 1 was issued for northern Algeria and Tunisia mainly for large hail and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for the central Mediterranean from Tunisia across southern Italy to the southern Adriatic and Greece mainly for excessive precipitation and tornadoes and to a lower extend large hail and severe wind gusts.

A level 1 was issued for the northern Adriatic and surroundings mainly for excessive precipitation, large hail, severe wind gusts, and tornadoes.


An intense cut-off process is underway at the eastern flank of an Atlantic ridge. At the end of the forecast period, a closed low will be centred across France. This will be associated with a westerly to south-westerly flow across the Mediterranean and warm air advection especially in the eastern portions. Across eastern Europe, a weak trough will move north-eastward.


Algeria to Sicily and Greece

Increasing warm air advection is expected across the area due to south-westerly flow in the wake of a lifting trough moving north-east into eastern Europe. An elevated mixed layer will spread north-east across the south Mediterranean Sea. The low-level mixing ratio will increase in the capped maritime boundary-layer due to the warm sea surface temperature. The plume of rich boundary-layer moisture will advect northward with the low-level flow, leaving the area of the strong inversion.

Additionally, several jet streaks will travel east along the 20 m/s jet stream that will provide QG lift from Algeria towards Greece.

Current thinking is that another round of frequent convective activity will affect the area until Friday morning. Storms will likely organize given the strong deep layer vertical wind shear, and mesoscale convective systems may move east or northeast.

The main threat will be excessive rain through-out the period as the storms will affect the same area along the warm air advection regime from Sicily to Greece for a longer time. Additionally, the high moisture will increase the chance of intense downdrafts. The western coasts and mountain areas are most at risk due to upslope flow where a level 2 was issued.

An additional risk are tornadoes due to locally large low-level hodographs together with strong low-level buoyancy near the coasts. Isolated severe wind gusts and large hail are mostly expected across Algeria and Tunisia during the afternoon and evening hours.

Northern Adriatic and surroundings

Strong QG lift is expected ahead of the European cut-off low that will spread into the northern Adriatic late in the period. Given the rather most and warm boundary-layer ahead of the cold front, CAPE is forecast and thunderstorms will likely form especially in the evening and night hours. As vertical wind shear will be strong, storm will quickly organize and supercells and multicells capable of producing large hail and severe wind gusts are forecast. Additionally, excessive precipitation is expected especially in the eastern portions of the area. Near the Adriatic Sea, tornadoes may also occur given the strong low-level vertical wind shear.”


Meteoalarm – severe weather warnings for Europe

Europe: Fourth firefighter killed as wildfires rage in Spain and Portugal – 270813 1955z


Fourth firefighter killed as wildfires rage in Spain and Portugal

The fires have consumed large parts of forests in the two countries.

Firefighters carry fire hoses as they work to extinguish a forest fire outskirts of Cebreros, Spain, Sunday 4 August
Image: Andres Kudacki/AP/Press Association Images via

“FIREFIGHTERS AND LOCAL residents struggled today to tackle raging wildfires that have consumed large swathes of forest in Portugal and Spain and cost the lives of four emergency workers.

Firefighter death

A volunteer firefighter who tackled the same blaze as a female colleague killed last week in the mountains of central Portugal has died from his injuries, his commander Carlos Coelho said.

The 23-year-old’s death brings the number of emergency responders killed in Portugal’s August fires to four.

More than 800 firefighters were mobilised in Portugal to tackle the blazes, which have intensified overnight due to high winds.

A spokesman for Portugal’s emergencies agency repeated his call for France to remain in the country after two French planes were dispatched to drop water on affected regions this week.

“The French mission is supposed to be completed Thursday, but we asked for an extension. We are waiting for a response,” said Miguel Cruz, spokesman for the Civil Protection Authority.

Two Spanish planes had also helped Portuguese authorities take on the fires but returned home at the weekend.

‘Difficult situation’

Cruz said Portugal would not ask neighbouring Spain for more help because of their own “difficult situation”, as firefighters and water-dumping planes battled a large wildfire in Spain’s northwest that drove residents from their homes, according to officials.

The blaze, one of hundreds to ravage Spain’s parched land over the summer, broke out late yesterday near Oia, a village on the Atlantic coast near the border with Portugal.

Firefighters backed by aeroplanes and helicopters were battling to curb flames that ravaged 1,200 hectares as they spread, the regional government said in a statement.

An alert was declared after the fire came close to some houses and residents were evacuated, an official in the Galicia region rural affairs ministry told AFP, but no one was reported hurt.

“The situation has improved since last night,” the official said. “We are not aware of the fire reaching any houses, although there were some evacuations.”

Spanish newspapers said the number of evacuations was at least 176.

The ministry said firefighters had controlled four other fires in the region in recent days, which burned thousands of hectares between them.

The central government said it had sent firefighting planes and personnel to the Oia fire and two others, in the Asturias region and the Tarragona area west of Barcelona.

Other Reports


Wildfires ravage Portugal and Spain

SKY NEWS AUSTRALIA Updated: 21:48, Tuesday August 27, 2013

“Around 1000 firefighters are trying to put out 11 major wildfires in Portugal amid continuing hot weather and strong night-time winds.

The National Civil Protection Authority said on Tuesday the biggest blaze was near Viseu, about 200 kilometres north of the capital Lisbon.

It said four water-dropping aircraft were helping more than 360 firefighters working in thick woodland and ravines there.

Temperatures above 30C were forecast for northern areas where wildfires have caused the most damage, but winds were expected to drop.

Officials said a 23-year-old firefighter died on Monday night from severe burns he sustained in a wildfire last week. That blaze killed another firefighter at the scene.

Forest blazes have caused the death of four Portuguese firefighters this northern summer.

In Spain, firefighters and water-dumping planes were battling a large wildfire in the northwest that has driven local residents from their homes.

The blaze, one of hundreds to ravage Spain’s parched land over the northern summer, broke out late on Monday near Oia, a village on the Atlantic coast near the border with Portugal.

Firefighters backed by aeroplanes and helicopters were battling to curb the flames which have ravaged 1000 hectares as they spread, the regional government said in a statement on Tuesday.

An alert was declared after the fire came close to some houses and residents were evacuated, an official in the Galicia region rural affairs ministry told AFP, but no one was reported hurt.

‘The situation has improved since last night,’ the official said. ‘We are not aware of the fire reaching any houses, although there were some evacuations.’

The ministry said firefighters had controlled four other fires in the region in recent days, which burned thousands of hectares between them.” –

Weather warnings: Spain


Weather warnings: Portugal

Germany: Dam breaks near Magdeburg; Extremist group threatened to attack flood dams – 090613 2040z

Germany: Dam breaks near Magdeburg; Extremist group threatened to attack flood dams 0906132040z

A dam has broken on the flood-swollen River Elbe in eastern Germany, forcing thousands of people to leave their homes around the city of Magdeburg.

Water levels in Magdeburg stood at 7.44m (24ft) on Sunday, nearly four times higher than normal (2m).

In Magdeburg, more than 23,000 people left their homes as flooding increased and power was shut off.

Flood defences on the Elbe and the River Saale have been weakened by days of heavy rain.

Another dam is in danger, reports the regional broadcaster MDR, and more evacuations may have to take place.

German President Joachim Gauck visited the flood-stricken city of Halle, near Magdeburg, and paid tribute to the way its inhabitants had coped.

German President Joachim Gauck visited the town of Meissen and other flood-hit areas on Sunday, appealing for donations to help those whose homes and businesses had been damaged (Photo: BBC News/AFP)

It is fantastic to see how different people get together to help others. And you notice that many of them are exhausted, but they are happy and it seems to motivate them, Mr Gauck said.

The flood crest is expected to reach northern Germany in the coming days. BBC News extract 9 June 2013 Last updated at 19:00

Photo: DPA

Unknowns threaten to attack flood dams

Published: 9 Jun 13 15:00 CET

Several newspapers received an anonymous letter on Sunday morning threatening to damage dams set up to hold back flood waters in eastern and northern Germany.

The letters authors, who describe themselves as anti-German, anti-fascist flood brigades, threaten to attack five specific sections of the dam in order to harm people across the country.

One of the dams being threatened is in Gro-Rosenburg, south of Magdeburg, where the River Saale flows into the Elbe, Der Spiegel reported. This dam broke on Sunday morning, though it was already under extreme pressure it is currently impossible to tell whether the damage was down to sabotage.

The crisis team monitoring the anti-flooding measures is taking the threat extremely seriously, and air surveillance of the dams named in the letter has already been beefed up. Patrols have been told to report any irregularities directly to the police.

Investigators told Der Spiegel they had no information on who could be behind the letter, but that its content suggests left-wing extremists.

Thousands of emergency workers, troops and volunteers in Germany battled Sunday against central Europes worst floods in over a decade, which have forced mass evacuations and which one politician termed a national catastrophe.

The focus was on Magdeburg, where vast outlying areas were covered in a sea of brown water, sparked by recent torrential rains which have washed down the Elbe river system from the Czech Republic.

The water level in Magdeburg reached 7.45 metres (24 feet) in the morning, vastly higher than the usual level of around two metres and worse than massive floods that struck the region in 2002, local authorities said.

Almost 3,000 residents were evacuated from the citys Rothensee district, where hundreds of army troops were working to reinforce a dyke protecting a crucial electricity facility to prevent a wider power outage in the city.

More townships were evacuated around Barby, where the Saale tributary meets the Elbe. Some of the 8,000 residents of the nearby town of Aken were taken to safety on military armoured personnel carriers and ambulances.

President Joachim Gauck was due to visit the flood-hit states of Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt on Sunday and join a church service with emergency crew and residents in the town of Halle.

The Local/AFP/bk

Germany steps up evacuations along flood-hit river

German authorities urged 15,000 more people to flee their homes in a city on the swollen Elbe river Sunday as central Europes worst floods in a decade also threatened Hungary after causing havoc in the Czech Republic and Austria.

A torrent of flood waters in Germany has turned vast areas into a brown water world, sparked a mass mobilisation of emergency workers and caused billions of euros in damage in what one lawmaker termed a national catastrophe.

Rescue helicopters criss-crossed the sky and military armoured personnel carriers rumbled through the flood zone, where thousands of troops, firefighters and volunteers were frantically building up flood defences with sandbags.

Across central Europe, the floods have killed at least 18 people, including 10 in the Czech Republic.

The German city of Magdeburg urged 15,000 residents to leave the east bank of the river, where an almost 7.5 metre (24 feet) peak up from the normal level of two metres was expected to strain saturated dykes for the next few days.

We hope that the dykes will withstand the pressure over the coming days, but we cant be 100 percent sure, said fire brigade spokesman Andreas Hamann, one of 1,200 emergency staff working around the clock in the area.

The move was described as a precaution, but a city spokesman said people really are supposed to leave in face of the danger. In all, 23,000 people in and around the city have been told to evacuate this weekend.

Soldiers in Magdeburg were also struggling to save a power installation in the harbour area, as water damage would not only knock out electricity to tens of thousands of homes but also to water pumps running at full tilt.

Tensions eased in cities upriver along the Elbe and its tributaries, including Dresden, Halle and Bitterfeld, where many evacuation orders were lifted and people returned to start clearing out their mud-caked homes.

The water level in Magdeburg was higher than during once-a-century floods of 2002, local authorities said. Magdeburg lies downriver from where the Saale river spills into the Elbe, creating a water surge a record 40 kilometres (25 miles) long.

Further downstream, towns including Lauenburg and the village of Hitzacker in Lower Saxony were preparing for the peak to hit in coming days.

Regional rains have also severely swollen the Danube, hitting southern Germany, especially the city of Passau, which has moved from alert to clean-up mode.

The deluge has sparked massive emergency responses in Austria, Slovakia and in Hungary, where waters reached a new record in Budapest on Sunday.

In Germany, President Joachim Gauck visited flood-hit areas, where in vast areas only roofs and tree tops stick out of the water and the only access is by boat or helicopter.

One cannot imagine how much remains to be dealt with, he said.

Adding to tensions was a threat to attack dykes from a group calling itself the Germanophobic Flood Brigade. Aerial and ground surveillance had been stepped up, said Saxony-Anhalt state interior minister Holger Stahlknecht.

Ironically, the sun was shining above most of Germanys flood zone, forcing the thousands packing sandbags to seek supplies of sun block and insect repellent.

However, more rains were expected by Monday in Thuringia, Saxony and Bavaria, with as much as 50 litres per square metre expected within a few hours.

Chancellor Angela Merkel was planning a crisis meeting with state premiers on how to share the bill for the disaster estimated to hit tens of billions of euros the Leipziger Volkszeitung newspaper reported.

Were dealing with a national catastrophe, Gerda Hasselfeldt, lawmaker for the conservative Christian Social Union, was quoted saying.

Despite the widespread damage, growth in Europes biggest economy was unlikely to suffer much as a result, said a survey of leading economists by the Welt daily.

Absurdly, economies actually pick up after natural disasters because the property damage needs to be repaired, Deutsche Bank chief strategist Thomas Mayer said. Yahoo News

Raw: German Dam Breaks, Thousands Evacuate

(Video credit: AssociatedPress)

Published on 9 Jun 2013

Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes in a region of eastern Germany where the Elbe river has flooded and burst through a dam. The swollen Danube is approaching Budapest where soldiers and volunteers are building flood walls. (June 9)

German (Google translation)

Deutschland: Dammbruch in der Nhe von Magdeburg; Extremist Gruppe drohte Hochwasser Dmme angreifen – 090613 2040z

9. Juni 2013 durch die Goaty Nachrichten

“Ein Damm wurde auf der Flut-geschwollene Elbe im stlichen Deutschland gebrochen, zwingt Tausende von Menschen ihre Huser in der Nhe von Magdeburg verlassen.

Pegelstnde in Magdeburg stand bei 7,44 m (24ft) am Sonntag, fast vier Mal hher als normal (2m).

In Magdeburg, verlassen mehr als 23.000 Menschen ihre Huser, wie berschwemmungen erhht und Leistung wurde abgeschaltet.

Hochwasserschutz an der Elbe und der Saale haben nach Tagen von schweren regen geschwcht worden.

Eine andere Mutter ist in Gefahr, berichtet die regionale Sender MDR und mehr Evakuierungen kann stattfinden.

Deutsch Joachim Gauck besucht die Flut heimgesuchten Stadt Halle, in der Nhe von Magdeburg, und wrdigte die Art und Weise seiner Bewohner hatte verkraftet.

Deutsch Joachim Gauck besucht die Stadt Meissen und andere Flut betroffenen Gebieten am Sonntag, ruft zu Spenden auf, um zu helfen, deren Huser und Geschfte beschdigt worden war (Foto: BBC News / AFP)

“Es ist fantastisch zu sehen, wie verschiedene Menschen zusammen kommen, um anderen zu helfen. Und Sie stellen fest, dass viele von ihnen erschpft sind, aber sie sind glcklich, und es scheint, sie zu motivieren, “Herr Gauck sagte.

Der Hochwasserscheitel wird erwartet, dass Nord-Deutschland in den kommenden Tagen zu erreichen. “- BBC News Extrakt 9. Juni 2013 um 19:00 Uhr Zuletzt aktualisiert

Foto: DPA
Unbekannte drohen Hochwasser Dmme angreifen

Verffentlicht 9 13. Juni 15:00 CET

“Mehrere Zeitungen erhielt einen anonymen Brief am Sonntagmorgen drohen Schden staut zurck zu halten Hochwasser in Ost-und Nord-Deutschland gesetzt.

Flutwelle breitet sich ber das stliche Deutschland (8. Juni 13)
Northern Deutschland Rennen Flut surge abstoen (7. Juni 13)
Deggendorf verwstet: Donau-Hochwasser Stadt (7. Juni 13)

Der Brief Autoren, die sich selbst als “anti-deutsch, anti-faschistischen Flut Brigaden” drohen fnf spezifische Abschnitte des Dammes anzugreifen, um “schaden den Menschen im ganzen Land.”

Einer der Dmme bedroht ist in Gro-Rosenburg, sdlich von Magdeburg, wo die Saale in die Elbe fliet, berichtet Der Spiegel. Dieser Damm brach am Sonntagmorgen, aber es war schon extrem unter Druck – es ist derzeit unmglich zu sagen, ob der Schaden nach unten war, zu sabotieren.

Der Krisenstab berwachung der Anti-Flooding Manahmen nimmt die Bedrohung sehr ernst, und Luftberwachung der Dmme in dem Schreiben genannt wurde bereits aufgepeppt. Patrouillen wurden angewiesen, keine Unregelmigkeiten berichten direkt an die Polizei.

Ermittler sagte Spiegel, sie htten keine Informationen darber, wer knnte hinter dem Buchstaben, sondern dass ihr Inhalt schlgt Linksextremisten.

Tausende von Rettungsassistenten, Truppen und Freiwilligen in Deutschland gekmpft Sonntag gegen schlimmsten berschwemmungen Mitteleuropas in mehr als einem Jahrzehnt, die haben Massenevakuierungen gezwungen und welcher Politiker bezeichnet eine “nationale Katastrophe”.

Der Schwerpunkt lag auf Magdeburg, wo weitlufige Umland in einem Meer von braunem Wasser bedeckt waren, durch die jngsten Regenflle, die auf der Elbe entwickelt haben aus Tschechien gewaschen ausgelst.

Der Wasserstand in Magdeburg erreicht 7,45 Meter (24 Fu) in der Frh, erheblich hher als der bliche Niveau von rund zwei Metern und schlimmer als massiven berschwemmungen, die die Region im Jahr 2002 getroffen, sagte lokalen Behrden.

Fast 3.000 Bewohner wurden aus der Stadt Rothensee Bezirk, wo Hunderte von Armee-Einheiten arbeiten, um einen Deich schtzt eine entscheidende Strom Anlage ein breiteres Stromausfall in der Stadt zu verhindern, verstrken wurden evakuiert.

Weitere Gemeinden wurden um Barby, wo die Saale in die Elbe Nebenfluss evakuiert. Einige der 8.000 Bewohner der nahe gelegenen Stadt Aken wurden, um die Sicherheit auf militrische gepanzerten und Krankenwagen bernommen.

Joachim Gauck war aufgrund der Flut betroffenen Lnder Sachsen und Sachsen-Anhalt am Sonntag besuchen und sich einen Gottesdienst mit Not-Mannschaft und Anwohner in der Stadt Halle.

Die Local / AFP / bk “-
Deutschland tritt Evakuierungen entlang Hochwasser betroffenen Fluss

AFPBy Yannick Pasquet | AFP – 9. Juni 2013
“Deutschen Behrden aufgefordert, weitere 15.000 Menschen ihre Huser in einer Stadt an der Elbe geschwollene Sonntag fliehen, wie Mitteleuropa schlimmsten berschwemmungen seit einem Jahrzehnt drohte auch Ungarn nach Verwstung in der Tschechischen Republik und sterreich.

Eine Flut von Hochwasser in Deutschland hat weite Teile in einem braunen Wasser Welt drehte, lste eine Massenmobilisierung von Rettungsassistenten und verursacht in Milliardenhhe Schden in dem, was ein Gesetzgeber bezeichnet eine “nationale Katastrophe”.

Rettungshubschrauber durchzogen den Himmel und militrische gepanzerten rumpelte durch die Flut Zone, wo Tausende von Soldaten, Feuerwehrleute und freiwillige Helfer fieberhaft Gebude wurden Hochwasserschutzanlagen mit Sandscken.

In Mitteleuropa haben die berschwemmungen mindestens 18 Menschen, darunter 10 in der Tschechischen Republik gettet.

Die deutsche Stadt Magdeburg forderte 15.000 Bewohner auf das Ostufer des Flusses, wo ein fast 7,5 Meter (24 Fu) Spitze verlassen – aus dem normalen Niveau von zwei Metern – voraussichtlicher gesttigten Deiche fr die nchsten paar Tage Stamm wurde.

“Wir hoffen, dass die Deiche den Druck in den kommenden Tagen zu widerstehen, aber wir knnen nicht zu 100 Prozent sicher sein”, sagte Sprecher Andreas Feuerwehr Hamann, einer der 1.200 Mitarbeiter Notfall rund um die Uhr in der Gegend.

Der Umzug wurde als Vorsichtsmanahme, aber ein Sprecher der Stadt sagte: “Menschen wirklich verlassen sollen” angesichts der Gefahr. Insgesamt wurden 23.000 Menschen in und um die Stadt erklrt worden, um an diesem Wochenende zu evakuieren.

Soldaten in Magdeburg wurden auch kmpfen, um eine Macht Installation im Hafengebiet zu sparen, wie Wasser Schaden wre nicht nur knock out Strom, Zehntausende von Husern, sondern auch Wasserpumpen laufen auf Hochtouren.

Die Spannungen in den Stdten gelockert flussaufwrts entlang der Elbe und ihrer Nebenflsse, darunter Dresden, Halle und Bitterfeld, wo viele Evakuierung aufgehoben und waren die Menschen wieder anfangen Entrmpelung ihre schlammverkrusteten Huser.

Der Wasserstand in Magdeburg war hher als whrend des “once-a-Jahrhundert” Hochwasser 2002, sagte rtlichen Behrden. Magdeburg liegt flussabwrts von wo die Saale in die Elbe verschttet, wodurch ein Wasserschwall ein Rekord von 40 Kilometern (25 Meilen) lang.

Weiter stromabwrts, Stdte wie Lauenburg und das Dorf von Hitzacker in Niedersachsen wurden fr die Spitze in den kommenden Tagen getroffen Vorbereitung.

Regional Regenflle haben auch die Donau stark geschwollen, schlagen sdlichen Deutschland, vor allem die Stadt Passau, die vom Alarm zu clean-up-Modus bewegt hat.

Die Flut hat massive Notfallmanahmen in sterreich, der Slowakei und in Ungarn, wo die Gewsser erreicht einen neuen Rekord in Budapest am Sonntag ausgelst.

In Deutschland besuchte Prsident Joachim Gauck Flut betroffenen Gebieten, wo in weiten Teilen nur Dcher und Baumkronen herausragen des Wassers und der einzige Zugang ist per Boot oder Helikopter.

“Man kann sich nicht vorstellen, wie viel noch zu behandeln sind”, sagte er.

Hinzufgen zu Spannungen war eine Bedrohung fr die Deiche aus einer Gruppe, die sich selbst die “deutschfeindlichen Flood Brigade” anzugreifen. Luft-und Boden-berwachung worden war trat, sagte Sachsen-Anhalts Innenminister Holger Stahlknecht.

Ironischerweise wurde die Sonne ber die meisten in Deutschland berschwemmungsgebiet scheint, zwingt die Verpackung Tausende Sandscke auf die Lieferungen von Sonnencreme und Insektenschutzmittel zu suchen.

Allerdings wurden weitere Regenflle bis Montag in Thringen, Sachsen und Bayern erwartet, so viel wie 50 Liter pro Quadratmeter innerhalb von ein paar Stunden zu erwarten.

Bundeskanzlerin Angela Merkel plante eine Krisensitzung mit Ministerprsidenten auf, wie man die Rechnung fr die Katastrophe zu teilen – schtzungsweise zehn Milliarden Euro getroffen – die Leipziger Volkszeitung berichtet.

“Wir sind mit einer nationalen Katastrophe zu tun”, Gerda Hasselfeldt, Gesetzgeber fr die konservative Christlich-Soziale Union, wurde zitiert.

Trotz der weit verbreiteten Schden, Wachstum in der grten Volkswirtschaft Europas unwahrscheinlich viel zu leiden als Folge war, sagte eine Umfrage der fhrenden konomen der Welt tglich.

“Absurd, Volkswirtschaften tatschlich abholen nach Naturkatastrophen, weil die Sachschden repariert werden muss,” Deutsche Bank Chef-Stratege Thomas Mayer sagte: “-. Yahoo News
Raw: Deutsch Dam Breaks, Tausende evakuiert

(Video credit: AssociatedPress)

Verffentlicht am 9. Juni 2013

Tausende von Menschen aus ihren Husern in einer Region des stlichen Deutschland, wo die Elbe berflutet und hat durch einen Dammbruch evakuiert worden. Die geschwollene Donau nhert Budapest, wo Soldaten und Freiwillige bauen sind Hochwasserschutz. (9. Juni)

Hungary: Budapest flood averted after Danube recedes, but severe storm expected. – 100613 0850z

Lapozzunk lefel a magyar fordts

Budapest’s embrace of the Danube, which normally bisects Budapest as a gently rolling swath of silver, turned threatening on Sunday when the river spilled over its banks and claimed the Hungarian capital as the latest victim of record floods in central and Eastern Europe.

An unusually wet spring has swollen the Danube, the Elbe and several of their tributaries across Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Hungary, forcing tens of thousands of people to leave their homes, disrupting rail and road traffic, and causing damage that preliminary estimates have predicted will reach several billion euros.

The authorities in Budapest had declared a state of emergency last Tuesday, anticipating that water level would reach record highs in the north of the country.

The Danube was expected to peak at 8.95 metres Sunday night or Monday morning.

Hungary deployed 7,000 soldiers supported by several thousand volunteers to reinforce dikes along the river.

Hungarian state television showed Prime Minister Viktor Orban at work near the city of Esztergom, north of Budapest.

“The flood is approaching the heart of the country, Budapest,” Orban told reporters Sunday.

“The next two days will be decisive, because the danger will affect the place where the largest number of people live and the most valuables are at risk.”

Monday, 10 June, 2013 at 04:00 UTC RSOE

Severe Weather Warnings (Meteoalarm)

awareness types: Orange & Yellow

more information:
Hungarian Meteorological Service

Weather warnings: HungaryShow RSS version

Awareness Reports – You can find detailed information about the warnings in the awareness reports issued for each area. Select the relevant area.

Central Hungary
Central Transdanubia
Northern Great Plain
Northern Hungary
Southern Great Plain
Southern Transdanubia
Western Transdanubia

Current weather warnings:

Other Reports

Budapest flood averted after Danube recedes


Budapest averted the worst of the floods that caused devastation elsewhere in central Europe, as flood defences held firm, with the Danube starting to recede early Monday (local time) after reaching a historic high.

“We have no reports of any catastrophic situation, the situation is normalising,” Budapest Mayor Istvan Tarlos told a joint press conference with Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban early Monday.

The same was true of the rest of the country, where no casualties or serious injuries have been caused by the floods that has been dubbed Europe’s worst in a decade.

“Budapest should be out of danger by Wednesday, and hopes to present a faultless record – no deaths or injuries due to the flood,” Orban said.

The focus of defence efforts now moved to high-risk locations in the south of the country, he added.

Residents evacuated as a precaution from villages in northwest Hungary could begin moving back from Tuesday, Orban said. Around 1400 people have been evacuated nationwide since Thursday.

The Danube in Budapest reached a historic peak of 8.91 metres on Sunday evening, topping the previous record of 8.60 metres in 2006.

Early Monday, the level began to fall however, reaching 8.88 metres by 0600 GMT, according to Tarlos.

Anti-flood barriers along the most threatened areas in the city held firm, he said.

Roads running along the Danube have been closed since Wednesday due to flooding. The main road connecting the capital to the flood-hit areas in the northwest was also still cut off.

“The biggest problem we have at the moment is traffic jams”, Tarlos said, urging people not to use their cars but to opt for public transport instead.” –

Thousands flee flood-hit parts of Germany and Hungary


Thousands have had to leave their homes, as Stephen Evans reports

Related Stories

Some 23,000 people were forced to leave their homes in the east German city of Magdeburg after a dam burst on the flood-swollen River Elbe.

Although water levels in Magdeburg were reported to be subsiding on Monday, other parts of the state of Saxony-Anhalt remain under threat.

In Hungary, 1,200 people had to leave their homes but in the capital Budapest flood defences appear to have held.

At least 18 people have died in the floods in Central Europe.

Analysts say the damage will cost billions of euros to clean up.

The authorities in Germany are investigating an anonymous letter threatening attacks on several dams.

The motive behind the threats is not known, but the threat is being taken seriously, says the BBC’s Stephen Evans in Berlin.


With levels on the Danube peaking, the mayor of Budapest sought to reassure the city’s inhabitants and said leaking dykes had been fixed.

“Budapest is not at risk of a catastrophe, the level is not expected to rise significantly,” Istvan Tarlos said.

Firefighters and volunteers in Nagymaros lay sandbags to keep the flood waters at bay

Along more than 700km (470 miles) of the River Danube, thousands of people, including many volunteers and even convicts from the prisons, worked to reinforce earth and sandbag barriers,

More than 1,200 people have been evacuated from their homes along the river, although no flood-related deaths have yet been reported in Hungary.

In Magdeburg, the capital of Saxony-Anhalt state, more than 23,000 people left their homes on Sunday as flood waters rose to 7.44m (24ft), nearly four times higher than normal (2m).

Some 700 soldiers worked to build a dam of sandbags around a power sub-station in the badly-hit area of Rothensee in a bid to keep the power on.

The Suddeutsche Zeitung newspaper reported that flood water levels had fallen slightly in Magdeburg itself on Monday, but other parts of Saxony-Anhalt are still under threat after days of heavy rain weakened flood defences.

The 8,000-population town of Aken and its neighbouring villages were evacuated after a dam on the Elbe river burst on Saturday, the police said.

Another dam is in danger, reports the regional broadcaster MDR, and more evacuations may have to take place.

German President Joachim Gauck visited the flood-stricken city of Halle, near Magdeburg, and paid tribute to the way its inhabitants had coped.

“It is fantastic to see how different people get together to help others. And you notice that many of them are exhausted, but they are happy and it seems to motivate them,” Mr Gauck said.

The flood crest is expected to reach northern Germany in the coming days.

Chancellor Angela Merkel is planning a crisis meeting with leaders of Germany’s regions on how to share the bill for the disaster, the Leipziger Volkszeitung newspaper reported.

“We’re dealing with a national catastrophe,” Gerda Hasselfeldt, an MP with Mrs Merkel’s Christian Social Union (CSU), was quoted as saying.


Budapest battles the rising waters of the Danube

(Video credit: Euronews)

With the Danube river close to peak level in Budapest, Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban said he would ask parliament to extend the state of emergency on Monday June 10.

Authorities and volunteers used hundreds of thousands of sandbags to bolster dykes and protect the capital.

Across Hungary, at least 1,200 people were evacuated and more than 40 roads closed.

The city of Visegrad is in a critical position, close to the Danube Bend.

LászlĂł Cseke, the city’s Protection Director told euronews: “If we succeed in protection, we can’t say we won, it would be silly. We have to live with this beautiful river and we have to adapt ourselves to it.”

Access to several towns was already blocked on Sunday June 9.

Euronews’ Andrea Hoyogos reported from Visegrad: “The village of Kisoroszi, not far from here, is now completely cut off. It can’t even be reached by boat anymore, as the road that leads to the boat terminal is flooded.”

Hungarians try to stem flood waters in Nagymaros

(Video credit: MrMyclips7)

Published on 9 Jun 2013

Emergency services and volunteers in Hungary are working hard to keep the River Danube at bay as water levels reach record heights.

Widespread flooding in central Europe has inundated swathes of Austria, Germany and the Czech Republic, killing at least 15 people.

Nick Thorpe reports from Nagymaros, north of Budapest, where sandbags are being piled high to prevent flooding.

Hungary floods Record high floods in Budapest

(Video credit: greenmoura)

Hungary prepares for record floods

(Video credit: plabro jent)

Published on 8 Jun 2013

Hungarians have been warned to prepare for their worst ever floods, with the Danube set to reach record levels.

A state of emergency has been declared and thousands of volunteers have been working to reinforce the banks of the swelling river.

Widespread flooding in central Europe has hit parts of Austria, Germany, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, killing at least 15 people.

Hungarian (Google translation) Magyar (Google fordts)

Budapest lelsben a Duna, amely ltalban felezi Budapest egy lanks rendet ezst fordult fenyegető vasrnap, amikor a foly tterjedtek a bankok s azt lltotta, a magyar fővrosban, mint a legjabb ldozata a rekord rvizek Kzp-s Kelet-Eurpban.

Egy szokatlanul nedves tavasz duzzadt a Duna, az Elba s tbb a mellkfolyk kztt Ausztriban, a Cseh Kztrsasgban, Nmetorszgban s Magyarorszgon, arra knyszertve tbb tzezer ember, hogy hagyjk el otthonaikat, megzavarva a vasti s a kzti kzlekeds, s krt okoz, hogy az előzetes becslsek mr előre is elrheti a tbb millird eurt.

A hatsgok Budapesten is kihirdette a rendkvli mlt kedden, arra szmtva, hogy a vz szintje elri rekordokat rt az orszg szaki rszn.

A Duna vrhatan a cscs 8,95 mter vasrnap este vagy htfő reggel.

Tartozik teleptett 7000 katona tmogatta tbb ezer nkntes megerőstse tltsek a foly mentn.

Magyar Televzi mutatott Orbn Viktor miniszterelnk a munka kzel a vros Esztergom, Budapesttől szakra.

“Az rvz kzeledik az az orszg szve, Budapest,” Orbn Viktor azt mondta jsgrknak vasrnap.

“A kvetkező kt nap dntő lesz, mert a veszly befolysolja a hely, ahol a legtbb ember l, s a legnagyobb rtkek veszlyben vannak.”

Htfő, jnius 10, 2013 at 04:00 UTC RSOE

Slyos Időjrs figyelmeztetsek (Meteoalarm)

Tovbbi informcik:
Hungarian Meteorological Service

Veszlyjelzsek: MagyarorszgRSS verzi

Veszlyjelzsek – Rszletesebb informcikhoz vlaszd ki az adott trsget.

Central Hungary
Central Transdanubia
Northern Great Plain
Northern Hungary
Southern Great Plain
Southern Transdanubia
Western Transdanubia

Jelenlegi időjrs figyelmeztetsek:

Ms jelentsek
Budapest rvz utn elhrult Duna visszahzdik

“Budapest elhrult a legrosszabb az rvz okozta pusztts msutt Kzp-Eurpban, rvzvdelem tartott cg, a Duna kezd visszahzdni korai htfő (helyi idő szerint) elrse utn a trtnelmi magas.

“Nincs jelents olyan katasztroflis helyzetben, a helyzet normalizlsa,” budapesti főpolgrmester Tarls Istvn azt mondta egy kzs sajttjkoztatn a magyar miniszterelnk Orbn Viktor mr htfőn.

Ugyanez igaz a tbbi orszg, ahol nincs srlt vagy slyos srlsek okozta az rvz, amelyet nevezte Eurpa legrosszabb egy vtizede.

“Budapest legyen a veszlyen a szerda, s remli, hogy a hibtlan rekord – nem halleset vagy srls miatt az rvz,” Orbn Viktor mondta.

A hangsly a vdelmi erőfesztsek most kltztt a magas kockzat helyeken a az orszg dli rszn, tette hozz.

Lakosok evakultak elővigyzatossgbl a falu szaknyugat-Magyarorszg azt kezdeni mozog vissza kedd, Orbn mondta. Mintegy 1400 embert kellett kitelepteni orszgszerte cstrtk ta.

A Duna budapesti elrte a trtnelmi cscsot 8,91 mter vasrnap este, cscsn a korbbi rekordot a 8,60 mter 2006.

Korai htfő, a szint kezdett esni azonban elrte 8,88 mter 0600 GMT szerint Tarls.

Anti-rvzvdelmi gtak mentn a legveszlyeztetettebb terletek a vrosban tartott cg, mondta.

Utak fut a Duna mentn mr bezrt, mivel szerda miatt rvz. A fő sszektő t a fővros, hogy az rvz sjtotta terleteken az szaknyugati is mindig le.

“A legnagyobb problma, hogy mr abban a pillanatban a forgalmi dugkat”, Tarls azt mondta, srgetve az embereket, hogy ne hasznljk az autjukat, hanem a tmegkzlekedst vlasztja helyette. “-
Ezrek meneklnek az rvz sjtotta rszein Nmetorszg s Magyarorszg

BBC jnius 10, 2013 Utoljra frisstve 08:15 BST (0715z GMT / UTC)

Ezrek el kellett hagyniuk otthonaikat, mint Stephen Evans jelentsek

Folytatdik olvas a fő trtnet
Kapcsold trtnetek

Kpekben: radsok sjtottk tartozik
Counting kltsge nmet rvizek
Nmetek evakultak tltsek sznet

Mintegy 23.000 ember volt knytelen elhagyni otthont, a kelet-nmet vros Magdeburg utn gtszakads az rvzi duzzadt Elba.

Br a vz szintje a Magdeburg jelentettk, hogy subsiding htfőn, ms rszein a Szszorszg-Anhalt is veszly fenyegeti.

Magyarorszgon, 1200 embert kellett hagyniuk otthonaikat, de a fővros, Budapest rvzvdelem gy tűnik, hogy tartani.

Legalbb 18 ember halt meg a kzp-eurpai rvizek.

Elemzők szerint a kr tbb millird eurs kltsget, hogy tiszttsk meg.

A hatsgok Nmetorszgban vizsgljk egy nvtelen levelet fenyegető tmadsok tbb gtak.

Az oka az, fenyegetsek nem ismert, de a fenyegets nem veszik komolyan, mondja a BBC Stephen Evans Berlinben.


A szint a Duna tetőzik, a polgrmester a Budapest igyekezett megnyugtatni a vros laki, s azt mondta szivrg gtak mr rgztettk.

“Budapest nem fenyegeti a katasztrfa, a szint vrhatan nem emelkedik jelentősen,” Tarls Istvn mondta.

Tűzoltk s nkntesek Nagymaros laikus homokzskokat, hogy a rvz sakkban

Mellett tbb, mint 700 km (470 mrfld), a Duna, tbb ezer ember, kztk sok nkntes, sőt eltli a brtnk, dolgozott, hogy megerőstse fld s homokzsk akadlyokat,

Tbb mint 1200 embert kellett kitelepteni otthonaikbl a foly mentn, de nincs rvzzel kapcsolatos hallesetet mg nem szmoltak be haznkban.

A Magdeburg, a fővros a Szsz-Anhalt llam, tbb mint 23.000 ember hagyta el otthont a vasrnap, mint rvz emelkedett 7.44m (24Ft), majdnem ngyszer magasabb, mint a norml (2m).

Mintegy 700 katona dolgozott, hogy ptsenek egy gt a homokzskot krl erő al-lloms, a rosszul sjtotta terlet Rothensee egy ajnlatot, hogy tartsa a kszlket.

A Sddeutsche Zeitung napilap beszmolt arrl, hogy az rvzi vzszint esett kiss Magdeburgban magt htfő, de a tbbi rsz Szsz-Anhalt mg fenyegeti nap utn heves esőzsek meggyenglt rvzvdelmi.

A 8000-populci vros Aken s a szomszdos falvak menektettk utn gt az Elba foly robbant szombaton, a rendőrsg szerint.

A msik gt veszlyben van, szmolt be a regionlis műsorszolgltat MDR, s evakuls lehet, hogy sor kerl.

Joachim Gauck nmet elnk elltogatott az rvz sjtotta vros Halle, Magdeburg kzelben, s tisztelettel adzik az t laki is megbirkzott.

“Fantasztikus ltni, hogy a klnbző emberek sszejnnek, hogy msokon segtsenek., s azt veszi szre, hogy sokan kzlk kimerltek, de boldogok, s gy tűnik, hogy motivlja őket,” Mr Gauck mondta.

Az rvz cmer vrhatan elri a Nmetorszg szaki rszn az elkvetkező napokban.

Angela Merkel kancellr azt tervezi, a vlsg tallkozott vezetőivel nmet rgik, hogyan kell megosztani a szmlt a katasztrfa, a Leipziger Volkszeitung jsg.

“Mi dolgunk a nemzeti katasztrfa”, Gerda Hasselfeldt, az MP Merkel asszony a Keresztny Szocilis Uni (CSU), volt idzett mint monds.
Budapest csatk az emelkedő vz a Duna

(Video jvrs: Euronews)

A Duna kzeli cscs szinten Budapest, Magyarorszg Orbn Viktor miniszterelnk azt mondta, hogy krni parlament kiterjeszteni a szksgllapotot htfőn jnius 10.

A hatsgok s az nkntesek hasznlt tbb szzezer homokzskot, hogy tmogassa gtak s vdi a fővrosban.

Magyarorszg terletn, legalbb 1200 embert evakultak, s tbb mint 40 t zrva.

A vros Visegrd a kritikus helyzetben, kzel a Duna-kanyarban.

Lszl Cseke, a vros vdelmi rendező elmondta euronews: “Ha sikerl vdelem, nem tudjuk megmondani, mi nyertnk, nem lenne butasg. Egytt kell lnnk ezzel a gynyrű foly, s van, hogy alkalmazkodni magunkat hozz.”

Hozzfrs a tbb vrosban mr blokkoltk vasrnap jnius 9.

Euronews “Andrea Hoyogos jelentettek Visegrad:” A falu Kisoroszi, nem messze innen, most teljesen levgta. Ez nem is rhető el hajval mr, mint az t, amely elvezet a haj terminl elnttte a vz. ”
Magyarok prblja megfkezni rvz Nagymaroson

(Video jvrs: MrMyclips7)

Publiklva 9 jnius 2013

Seglyhv szolgltatsok s nkntesek Magyarorszg kemnyen dolgozik, hogy a Duna sakkban a vz szintje elri rekord magassgokba.

Elterjedt rads Kzp-Eurpban mr elnttt npcsoportok Ausztria, Nmetorszg s a Cseh Kztrsasg, meglve legalbb 15 embert.

Nick Thorpe jelentsek Nagymaros, Budapesttől szakra, ahol a homokzskok kerlnek felhalmozott nagy radsok elkerlse.
Tartozik rvizek Rekord magas rvizek Budapesten

(Video jvrs: greenmoura)
Magyarorszg kszl a rekord rvizek

(Video jvrs: plabro Jent)

Publiklva jnius 8, 2013

Magyarok is figyelmeztetett, hogy felkszljenek a legrosszabb valaha rvizek, a Duna meg hogy elrje a rekord szintet.

A rendkvli llapot nyilvntottk, s tbb ezer nkntes mr dolgozik megerőstse a bankok a foly duzzanat.

Elterjedt rvz sjtotta kzp-eurpai rszt Ausztriban, Nmetorszgban, Szlovkiban s a Cseh Kztrsasgban, meglve legalbb 15 embert.

Czech Republic: Major flood risk remains for Bohemia; 8 dead and 19,000 evacuated. Prague city water level stabilised – 050613 2335z

The Vltavas bend in Prague 17 November 2011 (Photo:

On Tuesday, at least 10 people were confirmed dead in Czech Republic.

About nine others are reportedly missing.

Czech Prime Minister Petr Necas declared a state of emergency on June 2 and promised relief aid.

The Czech Republic capital, Prague, is preparing for more flooding as the Vltava river is continuing to rise.

Tuesday, 04 June, 2013 at 08:32 UTC RSOE

Other Reports

Vltava Basin, meteorologists not to blame for floods – Czech PM

Zleva ministr dopravy Zbyněk Stanjura, premir Petr Nečas a ministr zemědělstv Petr Bendl vystoupili 5. června v Praze na tiskov konferenci po jednn vldy.

vydno: 05.06.2013, 16:35 | aktualizace: 05.06.2013 16:59

Prague – Czech Prime Minister Petr Necas said today the flood-related problems can be blamed neither on the Vltava Basin management nor meteorologists and Agriculture Minister Petr Bendl (both Civic Democrats, ODS) echoed his opinion.

They were reacting to various critics of the flood situation.

Bendl said he will submit an analysis of the steps taken by the Vltava Basin management during the flooding to the government.

Necas said the Vltava Cascade and the Vltava Basin were proceeding correctly based on the prognoses of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMU).

“I want to stress that it is weather forecasting, that it is not even possible to blame the CHMU for not having guessed the amount of precipitation, it is really a very complicated thing, even though scientific and based on mathematical models,” Necas said after a government meeting.

Bendl said the cascade maximally used its retention capacities when a huge quantity of water arrived within a short time.

He said the worst situation is when the quantity of water no longer allows the regulation of outflow from water cannons.

Bendl said this did not happen this year, it happened during the devastating floods in 2002.

“In every stage we were in a situation where we were able also through you (journalists) to say how much water will flow through dams and when approximately,” Bendl said.

He said it is up to people and offices beneath the dams what steps to take.

Necas said the government will not say everything was excellent, but it is convinced that people did their work as well as they could, which does not mean that something may be improved.

The flood danger still persists in 25 places in Bohemia. The floods have claimed eight lives and firefighters have evacuated over 19,000 inhabitants. The damage is estimated at billions of crowns.

($1=19.689 crowns)

Autor: ČTK

(Photo: AFP/ Emergency services build anti-flood barriers on june 2 2013 in Prague

Prague evacuated because of flooding

Daily Mail Monday, June 03 2013

Flooding in Prague

Prague residents began to evacuate parts of the historic Czech capital before dawn today, hours before the worst flood in over a century was expected to hit the city.

Prague authorities ordered the evacuation of up to 50,000 people, faced by an approaching tide of water after days of rainfall swelled rivers in the south of the central European country and killed seven people.

Shop owners worked overnight to save their goods. Soldiers along with hundreds of volunteers were filling bags with sand and building walls to protect the picturesque medieval quarter of Mala Strana.

Torrential rains have also hit neighbouring Germany and Austria and floods in Russia killed dozens of people, bringing the death toll from European storms to more than 70 in a week.

Prague Mayor Igor Nemec told a news conference that parts of Mala Strana would be flooded by the afternoon because heavy rain in the south forced dams on the river Vltava, which flows through Prague, to open their gates.

We will sound sirens between six and seven oclock to start the next phase of evacuation, he said. People who are affected should prepare for about a four-day trip.

Nemec said the 14th-century Charles Bridge, one of Pragues main tourist attractions decorated with statues of saints, would be closed to the public to allow cranes to remove tree trunks and other debris carried along by the rapidly flowing river.

Water was already overflowing the Vltavas banks in some communities on the outskirts of Prague, especially in the south, and the rain continued to fall.

Jiri Friedel from Povodi Vltavy, a state company managing dams on the Vltava, said Prague had not since 1890 seen the river as high. He said water may rise to one to two metres in some residential areas.

He said he expected the mass of water splashing through the city to reach 20 times the average for this time of the year.

A hospital on the Vltava bank was evacuated. The mayor asked psychologists to help at shelters for evacuees and ordered 3,000 young men enlisted for civic duty to help rescuers.

There was no panic on the streets in the early hours today and many residents appeared to be planning to wait a few more hours to leave their homes.

We are going to a store where I work, then we will go to our relatives, said 75-year-old Arnost Hartman, who was leaving the working-class quarter Karlin, the largest evacuated area, with his wife.

Irena Hrubantova, a 33-year-old waitress at a gambling bar in Karlin, said she had not heard about the evacuations until a friend phoned her four hours after they were ordered.

But now my boss is telling me over the phone I must not leave and guard it here, she said, adding that she was afraid she would lose her job if she left.

Mayor Nemec tried to soothe fears about possible looting, saying police and soldiers would guard all the emptied areas.

The Prague Zoo Garden begun evacuating some animals, including birds and monkeys whose cages could be submerged.

Jan Cervencl, 25, was helping to move goods out of a fitness equipment store where he works and loading them into a van.

We will probably not be able to get all we need out. We found out about it too late, he said.

Thousands of Czechs were already evacuated from the south, including the regional capital Ceske Budejovice, home to Czech Budweiser beer, and Cesky Krumlov, another popular tourist destination. Forecasters said rain would continue.

Prague, Central and South County floods Source: ČTK. Author: Government / Jakub Stadler June 2, 2013

Floodwater is threatening parts of the Czech Republic.

BBC (Extracts) 5

Related Stories

Rising waters have been triggered by heavy rain following a wet spring.

Eight deaths were recorded in the Czech Republic according to a European Commission update on Tuesday evening.

The water level has stabilised in the capital Prague, where there had been fears of a repeat of disasters in 2002 and 1997.

Floodwater is threatening parts of the Czech Republic. in recent days as floodwater threatened to overwhelm flood barriers.

In the low-lying industrial city of Usti nad Labem, the River Elbe spilled over the 10m-high (33ft-high) metal flood barriers.

The main rail link connecting Prague and Berlin in Germany have been underwater, with trains being diverted.

line break


Czech emergency services work round the clock to evacuate flooded villages

(Video credit: Euronews)

Published on 5 Jun 2013

Days of heavy rain have forced emergency services to work round the clock trying to evacuate residents from flooded villages in the Czech Republic.

The village of Krivousy, 30 kilometres north of Prague, has been inundated by the river Vltava.

Some locals who lived through the 2002 floods refuse to leave this time. For Krivousy Mayor Jana Koberov it’s a problem:
“The floods this year aren’t so devastating but we won’t be able to get to some the villages until next week.”

That means hardship for those cut off – many of the villages such as Krivousy and Neratovice have no electricity or drinking water.

Over the last few days thousands have sought shelter at relatives’ homes or in schools. For resident Eva Bittnerova it is especially heart breaking.

“We had just built our new house here in Zalezlice after the 2002 floods. Now that has been flooded we will have to start all over again.”

The same village could have been spared this time if a protective dike had not been delayed by a dispute over land. Yesterday the semi-finished dike gave way to an under the onslaught of in pouring of muddy water

Floods Wreak Havoc in Czech Republic and Austria

(Video credit: Fabricia Souza)

Flood Waters Wreak Havoc Across Czech Republic

(Video credit: Fabricia Souza)

Floods Threaten Czech Chemical Factory

(Video credit: NTDTV)

Published on 5 Jun 2013

A chemical factory near Prague is under threat from floodwaters which are also causing problems in neighbouring Germany.

Charles Bridge in Prague Flood 2013

(Video credit: Marty Cooper)

Prague residents assess flood damage as water recedes

(Video credit: Euronews)

Published on 5 Jun 2013

In the Czech capital Prague there is relief that the water has stopped rising in the River Vltava

Prague floods 03.06. 2013

(Video credit: Walter Novak)

FLOODING in PRAGUE! HORROR!! (vom 31.05 bis 04.06.2013) HOCHWASSER in PRAG!

(Video credit: TheInteresantt)

Flood waters from Czech dams bear down on Prague

(Video credit: chandra sekaran A)

Published on 4 Jun 2013

no description available

Prague flood (Praha zaplavy) 3.06.2013 13:50-15:35

(Video credit: 88TenoHaruka88)

Published on 3 Jun 2013

3.06.2013; 13:5015:35 hours by local time
Prague, along Vltava river. Flood.
Praha podĂl Vltavy, záplavy, povodně.

Evacuation in Prague, state of emergency as floods grip Czech Republic

(Video credit: MrPsychoVids)

Published on 3 Jun 2013

The historical center of Prague is under threat as the worst flood in decades cause chaos, claiming the lives of at least five people. Almost 2,700 people from low-lying areas of Czech Republic were evacuated, schools closed and transportation halted.

River Vltava Prague 3rd June 2013

(Video credit: ramp62)

Published on 3 Jun 2013

River Vltava reached third-degree flood warning levels around noon today(2nd June)

Czech Republic Two Dead As Flooding Hits

(Video credit: 301PLUSNEWS)

Published on 2 Jun 2013

Czech Republic Two Dead As Flooding Hits
Prime Minister Petr Necas declares a state of emergency for much of the Czech Republic as swollen rivers threaten historic Prague.
3:29am UK, Monday 03 June 2013

Video: Flooding Hits Historic Prague
Czech Prime Minister Petr Necas has declared a state of emergency for most of the nation because of severe flooding as swollen rivers threatened Pragues historic centre.

Authorities evacuated low-lying areas in the Czech Republic and limited public transport in the capital as water from the Vltava River burst its banks.

The floods have killed at least two people and several people are missing across the country.

Mr Necas pledged 300m Czech Koruna (Ł10m) for relief efforts and said another 2,000 troops were ready to assist in putting up temporary barriers and sandbags in Prague.

He said: The government approved the declaration of a state of emergency which will enable a more effective rescue effort.

The historic area of Prague is a Unesco heritage site boasting hundreds of well-preserved buildings, churches and monuments dating back centuries, including the Charles Bridge straddling the Vltava which was closed due to high water.

A Prague hospital and parts of the zoo were also evacuated.
Floods in Prague, Czech Republic Firefighters put up temporary barriers in the Czech capital

Rory Pattison, an expatriate worker living in a village just outside Prague, said: The water is about 50 metres from my house but its only 1 or 2 metres from other houses.

We havent had an evacuation notice yet but everyone is making preparations just in case.

In 2002 floods killed 17 people, forced tens of thousands from their homes and caused several billion pounds of damage across the country.

Water levels have not reached that point yet but weather forecasters predict the rain will continue for several days.

Several people have also died in flooding in Germany, Switzerland and Poland.

In neighbouring Austria, torrential rain caused widespread caused widespread flooding and landslides and forced hundreds of people to evacuate their homes.

News agencies in Germany, where at least four people have died or are missing, said large stretches of the Rhine, Main and Neckar rivers have been closed to ship traffic and several cities including Chemnitz, Passau and Rosenheim have issued disaster warnings.

In 2002, 17 people were killed in flooding in the Czech Republic which also caused billions of dollars of damage.

Following that disaster, the Czech government spent $150m (Ł99m) on installing an anti-flooding system to protect Prague.

Czech Republic Two Dead As Flooding Hits

(Video credit: DailyTubeHD)

Prague floods (Praha záplavý) 2.06.2013; 13:50-16:15 h

(Video credit: 88TenoHaruka88)

Published on 2 Jun 2013

2.06.2013; 13:5016:15 hours by local time
Prague, along Vltava river. Floods.
Praha podĂl Vltavy, záplavy, povodně.

Floods in Prague GoPro Street View: Podoli, Kampa, Charles Bridge

(Video credit: Kuba Carda)

Published on 2 Jun 2013

Heavy rain and begging of floods in Prague gopro street view video shooting cycling from Podoli Podolske nabrezi Rasinovo nabrezi Jiraskuv most Janackovo nabrezi Most legii Smetanovo nabrezi to Charles Bridge

This last video show the Czech Air Force showing off their Search and Rescue helicopter flying skills yesterday, hopefully these skills will not be needed in earnest.

Open Day ŚĂˇslav 2013 W3A Sokol Czech Air Force display Search and Rescue

(Video credit: KarlosTR)

Czech (Google translation)

V ter bylo nejmně 10 lid potvrzeno mrtv v Česk republice.

O devět jin jsou dajně chyb.

Česk premir Petr Nečas vyhlsil stav nouze dne 2. června a slbil, e humanitrn pomoci.

Česk republika Hlavn město Praha se připravuje na dal zplavy jako řeka Vltava stle roste.

term 4.6.2013 v 08:32 UTC RSOE
Jin zprvy
Vltava Povod, meteorologov nenese vinu za povodn – Česk premir

Zleva ministr DOPRAVY Zbyněk Stanjura, Premier Petr Nečas a ministr zemědělstv Petr Bendl vystoupili 5. června v Praze na konferenci po jednn Tiskov vlady.

vydno: 05.06.2013, 16:35 | aktualizace: 05.06.2013 16:59
Praha – Česk premir Petr Nečas dnes řekl, e problmy souvisejc s povodněmi můe bt obviňovn ani na vltavskm povod ani meteorologov a ministr zemědělstv Petr Bendl (oba ODS) zopakoval svůj nzor.

Byli reagovat na různ kritiky povodňov situace.

Bendl řekl, e předlo analzu kroků, kter povod Vltavy při povodnch vldě.

Nečas řekl, e vltavsk kaskdy a Vltavy Povod postupujeme sprvně na zkladě prognz Českho hydrometeorologickho stavu (ČHM).

“Chci zdůraznit, e je předpovdn počas, e to nen ani mon vinit ČHM za to, e uhdl mnostv srek, to je opravdu velmi komplikovan věc, i kdy vědeck a na zkladě matematickch modelů,” uvedl Nečas po zasedn vldy.

Bendl řekl, e kaskdy maximlně vyut jej retenčn schopnosti, kdy obrovsk mnostv vody přiel v krtk době.

Řekl, e nejhor situace je, kdy mnostv vody ji umoňuje regulaci odtoku z vodnch děl.

Bendl řekl, se to nestalo v letonm roce, to se stalo během ničivch povodn v roce 2002.

“V kad fzi jsme byli v situaci, kdy jsme byli schopni i přes vs (novinři) řci, kolik vody proteče přehrad a kdy přiblině,” řekl Bendl.

Řekl, e to je jen pro lidi a kancelř pod přehradami, jak kroky přijmout.

Nečas řekl, e vlda nebude řkat ve bylo vynikajc, ale je přesvědčen, e lid dělali svou prci tak, jak by mohla, co neznamen, e něco, co lze zlepit.

Povodňovho nebezpeč přetrvv v 25 mstech v Čechch. Povodn tvrd osm ivotů a hasiči evakuovali vce ne 19.000 obyvatel. kody se odhaduj na miliardy korun.

($ 1 = 19,689 Kč)

Autor: ČTK

(Foto: AFP / Pohotovostn sluby vybudovn protipovodňovch zbran na 02.6.2013 v Praze
Praha evakuovali kvůli zaplaven

Daily Mail Ponděl 3.06.2013

Zplavy v Praze

Praan začali evakuovat čsti historickho hlavnho města Česk republiky před svitem dnes hodiny před nejhor povodně v průběhu stolet byl čekal, e zashla město.

Praha řady nařdily evakuaci a 50.000 lid, kterm čel blc se přliv vody po dnech detě zvětila řeky na jihu centrln evropsk země a zabil sedm lid.

Shop majitel pracoval přes noc, aby si zachrnili zbo. Vojci spolu se stovkami dobrovolnků plnili pytle s pskem a stavět zdi k ochraně malebn středověk čtvrti Mal Straně.

Přvalov detě zashly tak sousedn Německo a Rakousko a zplavy v Rusku zabili destky lid, čm se počet obět z evropskch bouře na vce ne 70 v tdnu.

Prask primtor Igor Němec, řekl na tiskov konferenci, e někter čsti Mal Strany budou zaplaveny odpoledne, protoe siln dť na jihu nucench přehrad na řece Vltavě, kter protk Prahou, otevřt sv brny.

“Budeme znt sirny est hodin a sedm hodin zahjit dal fzi evakuace,” řekl. “Lid, kteř jsou postieni měli připravit asi čtyřdenn vlet.”

Němec řekl, e 14. stolet Karlův most, jeden z hlavnch praskch turistickch atrakc jsou vyzdobeny sochami světců, bude uzavřen pro veřejnost, aby jeřby odstraněn kmenů stromů a jinch nečistot unet rychle tekouc řeky.

Voda u přetk Vltavy v banky v některch komunitch na okraji Prahy, zejmna na jihu a dť nadle klesaly.

Jiř Friedel z Povod Vltavy, sttn podnik řzen přehrad na Vltavě, e Praha u neměl od roku 1890 vidět řeku tak vysoko. Řekl, e voda můe vzrůst na jedna-dvam v některch obytnch oblastech.

Řekl, e očekv, e mnostv vody střkajc přes město k dosaen 20 krt průměr pro toto obdob roku.

Nemocnice na břehu Vltavy byl evakuovn. Starosta podal psychology vm na přstřeky pro evakuovan osoby a nařdil 3000 mlad mui zajistil pro občanskou povinnost pomoci zchranřů.

Tam byl dn panika na ulicch v časnch rannch hodinch dnes a mnoz obyvatel zřejmě v myslu čekat několik hodin opustit sv domovy.

“Jedeme do obchodu, kde pracuji, pak půjdeme k naim přbuznm,” řekl 75-let Arnot Hartman, kter opout dělnick čtvrtlet Karln, největ evakuovali oblast, s jeho enou.

Irena Hrubantova, 33-rok-star servrka v herně baru v Karlně, řekla, e nikdy neslyel o evakuaci a přtel zavolal j čtyři hodiny pot, co bylo nařzeno.

“Ale teď můj f mi řk do telefonu, e nesmm opustit a hldat to tady,” řekla a dodala, e se boj, e ztrat svou prci, kdy odela.

Starosta Němec se pokusil uklidnit obavy z monho rabovn, řk policie a vojci by střeit vechny przdnmi prostory.

Prask zoo Zahrada začala evakuovat někter zvřata, včetně ptků a opic, jejich klece můe bt ponořen.

Jan Červencl, 25, pomhal pohyb zbo z obchodu, fitness zařzen, kde pracuje, a jejich vloen do dodvky.

“Jsme pravděpodobně nebude moci zskat vechno, co potřebujeme ven. Zjistili jsme o něm přli pozdě, “řekl.

Tisce Čechů ji byly evakuovny z jihu, včetně krajskho města Česk Budějovice, kter je domovem česk pivo Budvar a Česk Krumlov, dal populrn turistick destinace. Meteorologov řekl, dť bude pokračovat.

Praha, Středn a Jin County povodně Zdroj: ČTK. Autor: Vlda / Jakub Stadler 02.06.2013
Povodně hroz čst Česk republiky.

BBC (vtah) 05.06.2013
Doprava je zde vidět kolem na silnici obklopen Labe nedaleko Litoměřic zplavovou vodou v Česk republice.
Souvisejc člnky

Praha protipovodňov zbrany dt otestovat
V obrazech: středoevropsk povodn
Fatal Povodně zashly středn Evropu

Stoupajc vody byly vyvolan silnmi deti po mokr jaro.

Osm mrt bylo zaznamenno v Česk republice podle Evropsk komise aktualizaci v ter večer.

Hladina vody se stabilizoval v hlavnm městě Praze, kde byly obavy z opakovn katastrofy v letech 2002 a 1997.

Tisce lid opustili sv domovy v theFloodwater hroz čst Česk republiky. v poslednch dnech jako povodně hroz přemoci protipovodňovch zbran.

V nzko poloench průmyslovho města st nad Labem, řeka Labe přelila do 10 m vysok (33 stop vysok) kovov protipovodňovch zbran.

Hlavn elezničn spojen spojujc Prahu a Berln v Německu byly pod vodou, s vlaky jsou odkloněny.
Čet vojci pomhali zchrann sluby vztyčen kovov bariry a vr pytle s pskem k zastaven povodn dosahujc praskch historickch oblast.
zalomen řdku
Čet zchrann sluby pracovat čtyřiadvacet hodin denně k evakuaci zatopen vesnice

(Video věr: Euronews)

Publikovan dne 05.06.2013

Dny siln dť donutil zchrann sluby pracovat čtyřiadvacet hodin denně se sna evakuovat obyvatele ze zatopench obc v Česk republice.

Obec Krivousy se 30 km severně od Prahy, byl zaplaven řeky Vltavy.

Někteř mstn obyvatel, kteř ili po povodnch v roce 2002 odmtaj opustit tento čas. Pro Krivousy primtora Jana Koberov je to problm:
“Povodně v letonm roce nejsou tak zničujc, ale nebudeme schopni se dostat do některch vesnic a do přtho tdne.”

To znamen, e utrpen pro ty, odřznutch – mnoho z vesnic jako Krivousy a Neratovice nemaj elektřinu nebo pitn vody.

Během několika poslednch dnů tisce lid hledal kryt v domcnostech přbuznch nebo ve kolch. Pro rezidenty Eva Bittnerov je zvltě lmou srdce.

“Zrovna jsme se postavili nov dům tady v Zlezlice po povodnch v roce 2002. Nyn, kdy bylo zaplaveno budeme muset začt znovu.”

Stejn obec by byli uetřeni tuto dobu, ochrann hrz nebyl zpoděn o sporu o pozemky. Včera polotovar hrz ustoupila pod nporem na lit bahnit vody
Povodně znamenat pohromu v Česk republice a Rakousku

(Video věr: Fabricia Souza)
Povodeň rozvrt cel Česk republiky

(Video věr: Fabricia Souza)
Povodně ohrouj česk chemičky

(Video věr: NTDTV)

Publikovan dne 05.06.2013

Chemick tovrna nedaleko Prahy je v ohroen před povodňovmi vodami, kter jsou tak způsobuj problmy v sousednm Německu.
Karlův most v Praze povodně 2013

(Video věr: Marty Cooper)
Praan posouzen povodňovch kod jako je voda ustupuje

(Video věr: Euronews)

Publikovan dne 05.06.2013

V Česk hlavnho města Prahy je leva, e se voda zastavila rostouc na řece Vltavě
Praha povodně 03.06. 2013

(Video věr: Walter Novk)
Zplavy v PRAZE! HORROR! (Vom 31.05 bis 06.4.2013) Hochwasser v PRAG!

(Video věr: TheInteresantt)
Povodňov vody z českch přehrad nese dolů na Prahu

(Video věr: Chandra sekaran)

Publikovan dne 04.6.2013

dn popis nen k dispozici
Praha povodeň (Praha zplavy) 06.03.2013 13:50-15:35

(Video věr: 88TenoHaruka88)

Publikovan dne 03.06.2013

03.6.2013, 13:50-15:35 hodin od mstnho času
Praha společně Vltavy. Flood.
Praha Poda l Vltavy, zplavy, povodn>.
Evakuace v Praze, stav nouze, jako byly povodně uchopen Česk republiky

(Video věr: MrPsychoVids)

Publikovan dne 03.06.2013

Historick centrum Prahy je v ohroen jako nejhor povodně za poslednch několik desetilet přčinou chaosu, kter si vydala nejmně pět osob. Tměř 2700 lid z nzko poloench oblast Česk republiky bylo evakuovno, koly zavřen a doprava zastavena.
Řeka Vltava v Praze 03.6.2013

(Video věr: ramp62)

Publikovan dne 03.06.2013

Vltava doshla třetho stupně povodňov varovn rovně kolem poledne dnes (2. červen)
Česk republika dva mrtv jsou zplavy hity

(Video věr: 301PLUSNEWS)

Publikovan dne 02.06.2013

Česk republika dva mrtv jsou zplavy hity
Premir Petr Nečas deklaruje stav nouze pro hodně z Česk republiky, otekl řek ohrouj historick Prahy.
03:29 Velk Britnie, ponděl 3.6.2013

Video: Zplavy Hits historick Praze
Česk premir Petr Nečas vyhlsil stav nouze pro větinu nroda, protoe siln zplavy jako otekl řeky hroz historickho centra Prahy.

Orgny evakuovno nzko poloen oblasti v Česk republice a na omezen veřejn dopravy v hlavnm městě jako je voda z řeky Vltavy vylila z břehů.

Zplavy zabily nejmně dva lid a několik lid chyb po cel zemi.

Pan Nečas slbil 300m Česk koruna (Ł10m) pro humanitrn sil a řekl, dal 2000 vojků byli připraveni pomhat při uveden do dočasn překky a pytlů s pskem v Praze.

On řekl: “Vlda schvlila vyhlen vjimečnho stavu, kter umon činněj zchrann sil.”

Historick čst Prahy je pamtkou UNESCO se můe pochlubit stovky dochovanch kostelů, budov a pamtek se datuje stolet, včetně Karlova mostu rozkročit Vltava, kter byla uzavřena z důvodu velk vody.

Nemocnice Praha a čsti zoo byly evakuovny.
Povodně v Praze, Česk republika Hasiči dt do dočasn bariry v hlavnm městě Česk republiky

Rory Pattison, emigrant dělnk ije ve vesnici, nedaleko Prahy, řekl: “Voda je asi 50 metrů od mho domu, ale je to jen 1 nebo 2 metrů od ostatnch domů.

“Neměli jsme evakuačn oznmen, ale zatm vichni, aby se přpravky jen v přpadě.”

V roce 2002 povodně zabil 17 lid, nucen destky tisc ze svch domovů a způsobil několik miliard liber kody po cel zemi.

Hladiny vody nedoshli tohoto bodu, ale zatm meteorologov předpovdaj dť bude pokračovat po dobu několika dnů.

Několik lid tak zemřelo v zplavy v Německu, vcarsku a Polsku.

V sousednm Rakousku, přvalov detě způsobily rozshl způsobily rozshl zplavy a sesuvy půdy a přinutil stovky lid opustit sv domovy.

Zpravodajsk agentury v Německu, kde se nejmně čtyři lid zemřeli, nebo chyb, řekl velk seky Rn, Mohan a Neckar řek byly uzavřeny, aby provoz lodi a několik měst, včetně Chemnitz, Pasově a Rosenheim vydaly varovn katastrofy.

V roce 2002 bylo 17 lid zabito v povodn v Česk republice, kter tak způsobila miliardy dolarů pokozen.

Po tto katastrofě se česk vlda utratila 150 m (Ł99m) na instalaci systm proti vyplaven chrnit Prahu.
Česk republika dva mrtv jsou zplavy hity

(Video věr: DailyTubeHD)
Praha povodně (Praha zĂplavĂ ˝) 02.06.2013, 13:50-16:15 h

(Video věr: 88TenoHaruka88)

Publikovan dne 02.06.2013

02.06.2013, 13:50-16:15 hodin od mstnho času
Praha společně Vltavy. Povodně.
Praha Poda l Vltavy, zplavy, povodn>.
Povodně v Praze – GoPro Street View: Podol, Kampa, Karlův most

(Video věr: Kuba Carda)

Publikovan dne 02.06.2013

Siln dť a ebrn povodn v Praze – GoPro street view natčen videa – Jzda na kole z Podol – Podolsk nbře – Ranovo nbře – Jirskův most – Jančkovo nbře – Most Legi – Smetanovo nbře u Karlova mostu

Tato posledn videa ukazuj Czech Air Force předvděl jejich ptrac vrtulnk ltn dovednosti včera, doufejme, e tyto dovednosti nebude třeba vně.
Den otevřench dveř 2013 W3A Sokol ŚĂslav Česk letectvo displej Search and Rescue

(Video věr: KarlosTR))

One in five households relying on loans and savings to pay for food bills


Austerity ‘has led to suicides’, say Oxford researchers

(Video credit: NewsPremiere)

Published on 30 Apr 2013

A group of researchers claim that austerity measures in Europe and North America are having a devastating effect on health, including increased levels of suicide and depression.
The author of the research, David Stuckler from Oxford University, and economist Howard Wheeldon spoke to BBC World’s Global programme.

Debt Despair: UK plagued by suicides as austerity shows no mercy

(Video credit: RussiaToday)

Published on 17 Feb 2013

Suicide rates are soaring in the UK, with money worries pushing many over the edge. Cuts to mental health services and aggressive debt-collecting are cited by experts as major factors aggravating the situation. RT’s Andrew Farmer met one mother, who lost her child over debt despair.

Inside Story – The human cost of austerity – AJE

(Video credit: AlJazeeraEnglish)

Published on 27 Oct 2012

Rates of suicide and depression are on the rise in Spain as the unemployment figures in the country reach a record high. So is this the human cost of austerity? Inside Story debates with guests: Diego Lopez, Madhur Jha and Maria Nyman.

Exposed: The Disaster Bankers Buying Their Way Out of Justice

Scriptonite Daily


According to the National Audit Office, The UK National Debt rose by £1.5trn as a result of the Bank Bailout. This is twice the nation’s total annual budget.  For this amount, the UK could have funded the health service (£106.7bn a year) for fourteen years , the entire education system for forty years(£42bn a year) or over three hundred years of Job Seekers Allowance (£4.9bn a year).  Not a single banker has gone to court, let alone to jail.  Instead bankers are being let off with fines and the removal of honours, effectively buying their way out of justice.

Bailout Revisited


Despite current propaganda that the national debt and the ensuing austerity policies are required to roll back excesses in public spending, the reality is the Financial Crisis was caused by the unregulated financial services sector.

There was collusion between government and the financial services…

View original post 1,986 more words

Hungary: M7 Motorway horror storm chaos leaves 1 dead, 40+ injured – 140313 2215z

More than 40 cars collided in the M7 Motorway, Hungary. A series of accidents caused by the late storm, which broke out in Hungary, after having caused chaos in Western Europe. The number of counties in the country (mainly in the western part of the country), red weather alert has been issued.

Thursday, 14 March, 2013 at 16:25 (04:25 PM) UTC RSOE

Press & Other Reports

TASR: Hungary weather snowfall accident M7
Issued: 14/03/2013 17:37 Created: 14/03/2013 14:24 Author: Category: Weather-hms / winter dream don AM
Hungary weather snowfall accident M7

KK20 Szabadbattyn – Firefighters intervene to place multiple car collision on the M7 highway Hungarian Szabadbattyn the town, 72 km southwest of Budapest, 14 March 2013.

During the mass collision crashed more than 50 vehicles, one person was killed and over 40 were injured.

Firefighters work at the scene of a mass accident on the M7 motorway near Szabadbattyan, 72 kms southwest of Budapest, Hungary, 14 March 2013th (MTI / Viktor Koppny)

From Youtube (Credit: Sprinterx2): Severe blizzard/winterstorm event was in Hungary on 14/03/2013. Maxima of windgust reached 100-110 km/h. A lot of traffic accidents happened on the M7 motorway.

GayBelarus: Gays in Belarus face reprisals for activism – Updated 160213 2345z

Photo: AP Siarhei Androsenka, center back, 24-year-old leader of GayBelarus, meets with his friends at home in Minsk, Belarus. Gay activists across Belarus emerged from the shadows and tried to register their rights organizations, but their efforts to go legal have been met by a wave of repressions.

Police in Belarus are going after gays, raiding their clubs and locking up clubbers overnight, and summoning gay activists for questioning.

One activist accuses police of beating him during questioning, while others say they were interrogated about their sex lives. The leader of a gay rights organization was stripped of his passport just ahead of a planned trip to the United States.

That is the governments response to a decision by gay activists across the country to try in January to legally register their rights organization, GayBelarus. It marked a more resolute attempt to emerge from the shadows after being slapped down repeatedly by the authorities.

Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko, who once said its better to be a dictator than a gay, has long denigrated homosexuals in the former Soviet republic. As he counters discontent from Belarusians who want to see democratic reforms and a more European-oriented society, Lukashenko has portrayed gays as agents of a decadent West. Gay rights activists are part of the broader opposition to Lukashenko, who has ruled the nations 10 million people with an iron hand for the past 18 years, earning the nickname of Europes last dictator in the West.

A similar dynamic is at work in Russia, where gay rights activists have joined the protest marches against President Vladimir Putin. Such public promotions of gay rights will be illegal if legislation now working its way through Russias parliament becomes law.

Homosexuality was formally decriminalized in Russia and Belarus with the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, but anti-gay sentiments still run high in both Slavic countries. In the 21st century in the middle of Europe we are forced to prove to the government that homosexuality is not an illness and not a crime, said Nasta Senyuhovich, a gay activist in Belarus.

She and about 70 other GayBelarus members signed the documents necessary to formally establish the organization and submitted them to the Justice Ministry in January. They did not have to wait long for a response.

Three days later, police burst into a gay night club in the city of Vitebsk and ordered everyone to stand against the wall. With a video camera rolling, the club patrons had to state their name, place of work and sexual orientation, according to Siarhey Androsenka, the 24-year-old leader of GayBelarus, who was in the club at the time.

This was more like a special operation against criminals, Androsenka said. Of course, this action was intended to frighten and intimidate those who dared to proclaim their homosexuality publicly in Belarus.

Three similar raids have been conducted in gay clubs in Minsk, the capital. The most recent raid took place last Saturday when seven club patrons were taken to a police station and held overnight, Androsenka said. He said police have told him that the raids are connected to the activities of GayBelarus.

Separately, more than 60 founders of GayBelarus have been summoned by the police for questioning in Minsk and seven other cities. During the police interrogation the majority of the questions were about my private life: how I became gay, how many partners I have, what role I prefer for sex, where I met my partners, said Artem Ivanou, a 21-year-old welder from Brest. He said police threatened to inform his employers.

One activist said police dragged him out of a hospital where he was undergoing treatment and took him to a police station, where he was beaten. They hit me in the stomach with their knees, and when I fell they began to hit me on the head, said Ihar Tsikchanyuk, who lives in the city of Grodno. He said they called him derogatory names and went through the information stored on his cell phone.

Police have refused to comment on the questioning of the gay activists, as has the Justice Ministry. The repression has caused panic among gays in Belarus. Many are cleaning out their accounts on social networking sites, deleting photographs and any references to gay culture.

We are tired of being afraid and are thinking more about emigrating as a last resort, said 23-year-old designer Iryna Zhebrak, holding the hand of her partner, 24-year-old Karyna Trus. The women, who have been together for 1 ½ years, said they planned to go to Europe to get married, but they hoped to be able to build a life together in Belarus.

We want social change, integration with Europe, Trus said. In todays Belarus we have no future. The state stirs up hatred of people who have an untraditional sexual orientation, which only strengthens the already high level of intolerance in society.

Lukashenko has openly insulted gays, who he has said should be sent off to collective farms to perform public works. After a meeting in 2011 with German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, who is gay, Lukashenko made his now famous statement that its better to be a dictator than a gay.

Lukashenko, an admirer of the Soviet Union, has relentlessly stifled dissent and extended his rule through elections that Western observers have criticized as undemocratic. The United States and the European Union have imposed economic and travel sanctions on the Belarusian government over its crackdown on opposition groups and independent news media.

Any attempt to stage a gay rights demonstration in Belarus is usually quickly dispersed by police. But last year, activists managed to evade police by renting a streetcar and driving it through Minsk decorated with rainbow flags and signs.

Members of GayBelarus hold underground educational seminars and meetings in small towns, where gays have even a more difficult time. In Grodno, where Tsikchanyuk claims he was beaten, several seminars are planned for February.

Gays for the first time got some hope that they could change their marginal existence, they came to believe that they could fight for their rights even in Belarus, said Androsenka, who has led the gay rights group for three years. The rented apartment where he lives with his partner is the groups headquarters, strewn with books, brochures and rainbow flags.

Androsenka was supposed to leave Feb. 2 for the United States to participate in a program for civil society leaders sponsored by the State Department. But Belarusian border guards seized his passport under what appears to be an absurd pretext. Androsenka said they told him his passport was listed as lost, and that he himself had reported it missing.

U.S. speaks out against harassment of GayBelarus

usosceU.S. Mission to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)

Statement on LGBT Harassment and Political Prisoners in Belarus

As delivered by Ambassador Ian Kelly
to the Permanent Council, Vienna
February 14, 2013

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

The Belarusian MFA issued a report last week critical of the human rights performance of 25 countries, including the United States. The delegation of Belarus cited this report at the last meeting of the Permanent Council. The United States welcomes dialogue with other countries and non-governmental organizations regarding the human rights situation in the United States. We urge Belarusian authorities to engage, as well, in a dialogue about human rights within Belarus.

In this context, the United States expresses its deep concern regarding recent incidents in Belarus involving official harassment of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals.

At least four times this year, police have raided clubs frequented by members of the LGBT community in Belarus and briefly detained dozens in Minsk and Vitebsk, most recently on February 8. During one of the raids, police reportedly told the detainees that they were connected with inappropriate activities of the human rights NGO GayBelarus. GayBelarus has been unable to register legally and, following its second attempt to do so in January, police questioned over 60 members of the NGO regarding their activities.

Members of the LGBT community are not alone in facing harassment and intimidation in Belarus. Malady Front activist Uladzimir Yaromenak was sentenced to 12 days in jail on January 24 for violating the conditions of his August 2011 pardon from prison. He originally received a three-year sentence following the December 2010 crackdown.

Political activists and journalists are limited in their freedom of movement. Iryna Khalip reports that local police have told her that, as part of her suspended sentence, she cannot travel freely. Khalip, the wife of former political prisoner Andrei Sannikov who is in exile, is also subject to a curfew.

We welcome the February 9 release of political prisoner Vasil Parfyankou, and we take this opportunity to reiterate our call on the Government of Belarus to honor its OSCE commitments, immediately and unconditionally release all political prisoners, and ensure their full rehabilitation. Respect for democracy and human rights in Belarus remains central to overcoming the countrys international isolation and is essential to the progress of the country and welfare of its citizens.

Thank you, Mr. Chairman.

Russian (Google Translation)

Геи в Беларуси лице репрессий за активность

(Фото:. APSiarhei Androsenka, центральный защитник, 24-летний лидер GayBelarus, встречается со своими друзьями у себя дома в Минске, Беларусь Гей-активисты по всей Беларуси вышли из тени и пытались зарегистрировать свои права организации, но их усилия, чтобы пойти правовых были встречены волной репрессий.)

Полиция в Беларуси собираются после геи, набеги свои клубы и блокирования клабберов ночи, и, призвав гей-активистов для допроса.

Один из активистов обвиняют полицию в избиении его во время допроса, а другие говорят, что они были допрошены об их сексуальной жизни. Лидер гей-организации по защите прав его лишили паспорта непосредственно перед запланированной поездкой в ​​Соединенные Штаты.

То есть реакция правительства на решение гей-активистов по всей стране, чтобы попробовать в январе юридически зарегистрировать свои права организации, GayBelarus. Она ознаменовала более решительные попытки выйти из тени после того, как ударил вниз, со стороны властей.

Президент Беларуси Александр Лукашенко, который однажды сказал: лучше быть диктатором, чем геев, уже давно порочат гомосексуалистов в бывшем Советском республики. Как он счетчиков недовольство белорусов, которые хотят видеть демократических реформ и более европейски ориентированных общества, Лукашенко изображали геев в качестве агентов загнивающего Запада. Гей-активисты прав являются частью более широкой оппозиции к Лукашенко, который правит 10 миллионов жителей страны с железной рукой в ​​течение последних 18 лет, заслужив прозвище последний диктатор Европы на Западе.

Аналогичная динамика на работу в Россию, где гей-активистов в области прав присоединились к марши протеста против президента Владимира Путина. Такие общественные акции прав геев будет незаконным, если законодательство сейчас работает свой путь через парламент России становится законом.

Гомосексуализм был официально декриминализированы в России и Беларуси с распадом Советского Союза в 1991 году, но анти-гей настроения по-прежнему кипят в обеих славянских стран. В 21-м веке в центре Европы, мы вынуждены, чтобы доказать правительству, что гомосексуализм это не болезнь, а не преступление, сказала Анастасия Senyuhovich, гей-активиста в Беларуси.

Она и около 70 других членов GayBelarus подписал документы, необходимые для официального создания организации и представил их в Министерство юстиции в январе. Они не придется долго ждать ответа.

Три дня спустя, полиция ворвалась в гей-клубе ночью в городе Витебске и приказал всем встать к стене. С прокатки видеокамеры, клуб покровителей было заявить свое имя, место работы и сексуальной ориентации, в соответствии с Siarhey Androsenka, 24-летний лидер GayBelarus, который был в клубе в то время.

Это было больше похоже на спецоперацию против преступников, Androsenka сказал. Конечно, эта акция была предназначена для устрашения и запугивания тех, кто осмелился заявить о своей гомосексуальности публично в Беларуси.

Три аналогичных рейдов были проведены в гей-клубы в Минске, столице. Самый последний рейд состоялся в прошлую субботу, когда семь патронов клуба были доставлены в отделение милиции и продержали всю ночь, Androsenka сказал. Он сказал, что полиция сказала ему, что рейды связаны с деятельностью GayBelarus.

Отдельно более 60 учредителей GayBelarus был вызван на допрос в полицию в Минске и семи других городах. Во время допроса в полиции большинство вопросов было о моей личной жизни: как я стал геем, сколько партнеров у меня, какую роль я предпочитаю для секса, где я познакомился со своей партнеров, сказал Артем Иванов, 21-летний старые сварщик из Бреста. Он сказал, что полиция пригрозила сообщить своим работодателям.

Один активист сказал, что полиция вытащили его из больницы, где он проходил лечение и доставили его в полицейский участок, где он был избит. Они ударил меня в живот колени, а когда я упал, они начали бить меня по голове, сказал Игорь Tsikchanyuk, который живет в городе Гродно. Он сказал, что они назвали его уничижительные имена и прошел информации, хранящейся на свой мобильный телефон.

Полиция отказалась комментировать допрос гей-активистов, равно как и Министерство юстиции. Репрессии вызвали панику среди геев в Беларуси. Многие очистке своих счетов на сайтах социальных сетей, удалять фотографии и любые ссылки на гей-культуры.

Мы устали бояться и больше думают об эмиграции в качестве последнего средства, сказал 23-летний дизайнер Ирина Жебрак, держа за руку своего партнера, 24-летняя Карина Трус. Женщины, которые были вместе в течение 1 лет, сказал, что они планировали поехать в Европу, чтобы выйти замуж, но они надеялись быть в состоянии построить совместную жизнь в Беларуси.

Мы хотим, социальных изменений, интеграции с Европой, Трус сказал. В сегодняшней Беларуси, у нас нет будущего. Государство разжигает ненависть к людям, которые имеют нетрадиционную сексуальную ориентацию, которая только усиливает и без того высокий уровень нетерпимости в обществе.

Лукашенко открыто оскорбляют геев, которые он сказал, должны быть отправлены в колхозы для выполнения общественных работ. После встречи в 2011 году с министром иностранных дел Германии Гидо Вестервелле, который является геем, Лукашенко сделал свое знаменитое заявление сейчас, что лучше быть диктатором, чем геев.

Лукашенко, поклонник Советского Союза, безжалостно подавил инакомыслие и распространил свою власть посредством выборов, которые западные наблюдатели критиковали как недемократические. Соединенные Штаты и Европейский союз ввели экономические и туристические санкции в отношении белорусского правительства над его подавления оппозиции и независимых СМИ.

Любая попытка устроить гей-демонстрации прав человека в Беларуси, как правило, быстро разогнаны полицией. Но в прошлом году активисты удалось избежать полиции аренду трамвай и вождение через Минск украшен флагами радуги и знаков.

Члены GayBelarus провести подземный образовательных семинаров и встреч в малых городах, где геи имеют еще более трудные времена. В Гродно, где Tsikchanyuk утверждает, что он был избит, несколько семинаров запланировано на февраль.

Геи в первый раз получил некоторую надежду, что они могут изменить свое жалкое существование, они пришли к убеждению, что они могут бороться за свои права даже в Беларуси, сказал Androsenka, который привел гей-группы права в течение трех лет. Арендованной квартире, где он живет со своим партнером является штаб-квартирой группы, разбросанные книги, брошюры и радужные флаги.

Androsenka должна была выйти 2 февраля в США для участия в программе для лидеров гражданского общества под эгидой Государственного департамента. Но белорусские пограничники захватили его паспорт в то, что кажется абсурдным предлогом. Androsenka сказал, что они сказали ему его паспорт был указан в качестве потеряно, и что он сам сообщил об этом отсутствует. -


Миссия США при Организации по безопасности и сотрудничеству в Европе (ОБСЕ)
Заявление о ЛГБТ Преследование и политических заключенных в Беларуси

Выступление посла Иэна Келли
Постоянного совета ОБСЕ в Вене
14 февраля 2013

Благодарю Вас, господин Председатель.

Белорусский МИД опубликовал доклад, на прошлой неделе критикой соблюдения прав человека в 25 странах, включая Соединенные Штаты. Делегация Беларуси заявили, что этот доклад на последнем заседании Постоянного совета. Соединенные Штаты приветствуют диалог с другими странами и неправительственными организациями в отношении ситуации с правами человека в Соединенных Штатах. Мы призываем белорусские власти занимаются, а также, в диалоге о правах человека в Беларуси.

В этом контексте, Соединенные Штаты выражает свою глубокую озабоченность в связи с недавними инцидентами в Беларуси с участием официальных преследований лесбиянок, геев, бисексуалов и трансгендерных лиц.

По крайней мере четыре раза в этом году, полицейские рейды клубы посещают члены ЛГБТ-сообщества в Беларуси и на короткое время задержаны десятки в Минске и Витебске, в последний раз 8 февраля. Во время одного из рейдов, полиция сказала задержанных, что они были связаны? Неуместно? деятельность в области прав человека НПО GayBelarus. GayBelarus не смогла зарегистрировать юридически, а после ее вторая попытка сделать это в январе, полиция допрашивала более 60 членов неправительственной организации о своей деятельности.

Члены ЛГБТ-сообщества не одиноки перед лицом преследования и запугивания в Беларуси. Молодого фронта активиста Владимира Yaromenak был приговорен к 12 дням тюремного заключения 24 января за нарушение условий своего августе 2011 помиловании из тюрьмы. Первоначально он был приговорен к трем годам лишения свободы после в декабре 2010 репрессий.

Политические активисты и журналисты ограничены в своей свободе передвижения. Ирина Халип сообщает, что местная полиция сказала ей, что, как часть ее условное наказание, она не может свободно передвигаться. Халип, жена бывшего политзаключенного Андрея Санникова, который находится в изгнании, также является предметом комендантский час.

Мы приветствуем 9 февраля освобождение политических заключенных Василий Парфенков;, и мы пользуемся этой возможностью, чтобы вновь призываем правительство Беларуси выполнять свои обязательства в рамках ОБСЕ, немедленно и безоговорочно освободить всех политических заключенных, и обеспечить их полную реабилитацию. Уважение к демократии и правах человека в Беларуси остается центральным для преодоления страной? С международной изоляции и имеет важное значение для развития страны и благосостояния ее граждан.

Благодарю Вас, господин Председатель.

Holocaust Memorial Day – 27 January 2013 – Remembering the victims of the Holocaust, Nazi Persecution and subsequent genocides – Updated 070213 1820z

(Latest material at bottom of page)

The Holocaust

Between 1933 and 1945, the Nazis attempted to annihilate all of Europes Jews. It is this event which we now refer to as The Holocaust or the Shoah, a variation on a Hebrew word.

The Nazis spread their hatred through the use of propaganda and legislation designed to deny human rights to Jews and used centuries of anti-semitism as their foundation. By the end of the Holocaust, 6 million Jewish men, women and children had been murdered in ghettos, mass-shootings, in concentration and extermination camps, and many millions more were affected by the Nazis extreme policies.

As soon as the Nazis came to power they introduced laws and legislation intended to deny Jews the freedom of movement, work and other basic rights. Boycotts of Jewish doctors, lawyers and shops began in 1933 and by 1935 Jews were not allowed to join the civil service or the army. The introduction of the Nuremberg laws in September 1935 further increased Jewish marginalisation. Jews were banned from marrying non-Jews and their citizenship was removed including their right to vote. As time progressed, more restrictions were brought in and Jews were barred from all professional occupations and Jewish children were prohibited from attending public schools. In 1938, further laws decreed that men must take the middle name Israel and women Sarah, all German Jews would have their passports marked with a J

On 9 November 1938 the Nazis initiated pogroms (an organised persecution of a particular group) against the Jews in all Nazi territories. It was a night of vandalism, violence and persecution that many have since described as the beginning of the Holocaust. 91 Jews were murdered, 30,000 were arrested and 191 synagogues were destroyed. This night became known as Kristallnacht the night of broken glass, so called because of the smashed glass which covered the streets from the shops which were looted.

listen to the testimony of Holocaust survivors such as Dr Martin Stern.

find out about the Nazis final solution to annihilate all of European Jewry.

read about the ghettoisation programme.

The Rise of the Nazi Party

1919 German Workers Party (later, Nazi Party) established.

1921 Adolf Hitler becomes Party Chairman.

1921-1922 Period of growth in support for the Nazis due to the appeal to young unemployed men who were suffering due to the economic crisis under the Weimar Republic.

1922 Inspired by the National Fascist Party in Italy, Hitler introduced the straight-armed salute, which became synonymous with the Nazi party, and is still used by Neo-Nazi and Fascist groups today.

1923 The Nazi Party carried out an unsuccessful coup against the government which resulted in imprisonment for Hitler. Whilst incarcerated Hitler wrote his manifesto Mein Kampf in which he outlined his ideology on a true Aryan race and expressed his violent anti-semitism.

1923-27 the Nazi Party continued to gain popularity.

1929 By this point, the Nazi Party had approximately 130,000 members. The Nazis gained support by implanting the idea that the ongoing financial crisis, which saw unemployment rise and businesses fail was due to Jewish financiers, building on existing anti-semitism.

1933 With over 400,000 party members, Hitler was appointed Chancellor. Once in office, he quickly secured almost unlimited power through manipulation and terror, though he remained publicly respectful to the President, Paul Von Hindenburg. When the latter died in 1934 Hitler became Fuhrer. Governmental practice was changed, with a law being passed which allowed the Nazis to pass laws without parliamentary approval. They later banned all other political parties, turning Germany into a one-party state.

Kindertransport & Refugees

The Kindertransport

The Kindertransport was a unique humanitarian programme which ran between November 1938 and September 1939. Approximately 10,000 children, the majority of whom were Jewish, were sent from their homes and families in Austria, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland to Great Britain.

Immediately after the Nazis came to power in 1933 the persecution of Jews began this reached a pre-war peak with Kristallnacht (the Night of the Broken Glass) on 9/10 November 1938. 267 synagogues were destroyed, 100 people were killed, all remaining Jewish stores in the Reich were destroyed and almost 30,000 people were taken to concentration camps.

Sir Samuel Hoare, the Home Secretary, agreed that to speed up the immigration process by issuing travel documents on the basis of group lists rather than individual applications. Strict conditions were placed upon the entry of the children. Jewish and non-Jewish agencies promised to fund the operation and to ensure that none of the refugees would become a financial burden on the public. Every child would have a guarantee of 50 to finance his or her eventual re-emigration.

The Movement for the Care of Children from Germany, later known as the Refugee Childrens Movement (RCM), sent representatives to Germany and Austria to establish the systems for choosing, organising, and transporting the children. On 25 November, after discussion in the House of Commons British citizens heard an appeal for foster homes on the BBC Home Service. Soon there were 500 offers, and RCM volunteers started visiting these possible foster homes and reporting on conditions. They did not insist that prospective homes for Jewish children should be Jewish homes.

The first Kindertransport from Berlin departed on 1 December, and the first from Vienna on 10 December. In March 1939, after the German army entered Czechoslovakia, transports from Prague were hastily organised. Trains of Polish Jewish children were also arranged in February and August 1939.

The last group of children from Germany departed on 1 September 1939, the day the German army invaded Poland and provoked Great Britain, France, and other countries to declare war. The last known Kindertransport from the Netherlands left on 14 May 1940, the day the Dutch army surrendered to Germany.

After the war ended many of the children stayed in Britain or emigrated to the newly formed state of Israel, America, Canada or Australia. Most of the children had been orphaned since leaving their homes, losing their families in the Ghettos or camps they had escaped.


The Jewish refugees who fled to Britain before the outbreak of war in 1939 to escape Hitler came from Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia. They were the first sizable group of refugees in the successive waves of immigration that flowed into Britain from the middle decades of the last century. By 1939, Britain was playing host to over 60,000 some 50,000 of whom settled permanently. They were joined after 1945 by a smaller group of Jews who had survived the Holocaust in Europe.

These refugees sought asylum from racial, religious and political persecution; even though Nazi measures against the Jews had not by 1939 escalated into the attempt at total extermination witnessed during the wartime Holocaust. The vicious and systematic discrimination to which Jews were subjected made life intolerable for them even before 1939.

The admission of Jewish refugees from Central Europe was opposed by sections of the press, by right-wing political forces, by groups like Oswald Mosleys British Union of Fascists, and by those arguing for the preservation of British jobs at a time of high unemployment against the perceived threat of imported foreign labour. The refugees had their supporters in liberal circles and among those whose compassion was aroused by the plight of the Nazis victims. Only after the intensification of Nazi persecution of the Jews that took place in 1938/39 did Britain accept larger numbers of refugees, admitting some 50,000 in the last eighteen months before the outbreak of war, including some 10,000 unaccompanied Jewish children who came on Kindertransport.

The pre-war refugees from Germany were drawn largely from the Jewish middle classes. Well educated, cultured and often with professional qualifications or experience, they had mostly been well integrated into the societies of their native lands, and they continued on the path of assimilation in Britain. After the war most took British nationality and settled down to build new lives for themselves and their families.

They largely preserved their German-language culture and their Continental identity, while integrating broadly successfully into British society. The skills, enterprise and education that they brought with them ensured that they contributed significantly to British life.

Ghettos & Deportation


During the Nazi regime of hatred, ghettos were a central step in the process of control, dehumanisation, and mass murder of the Jews and Gypsies.

Nazi Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939 and as a result, the UK and other Western European countries declared war. Thus, the Second World War began but the initial fighting in Poland lasted only a few weeks, as Polands old-fashioned army was quickly defeated by the modern, advanced German forces. In spring 1940 the Nazis established ghettos in the larger towns and cities across Poland.

The Germans regarded the establishment of ghettos as a provisional measure to control and segregate Jews while the Nazi leadership in Berlin deliberated upon options to realise the goal of removing the Jewish population, which in turn formed the Final Solution.

The largest ghetto in Poland was Warsaw, where 400,000 Jews were crowded into 1.3 square miles of the city. Other ghettos in Poland included those in the cities of Lodz, Krakow, Bialystok, Lvov, Lublin, Vilna, Czestochowa, and Minsk. Many thousands of western European Jews were also deported to ghettos in the east.

The ghettos were specially selected areas where Jews were forced to live. Some had walls built around them, others were marked out by barbed wire. They were nearly always in the poorest areas of town and desperately cramped with poor sanitation. As time went on, food restrictions were introduced and terrible conditions led to hundreds of thousands dying from disease or malnutrition. Men, women and children were forced to leave their homes taking only the possessions they could carry and move into overcrowded houses and rooms, where their movement was strictly prohibited. Conditions in the ghettos were appalling, where families were crowded together without adequate supplies of food or water. Many people died from starvation, disease and casual executions carried out by the Nazis.

All Jewish inhabitants of the ghettos were forced to wear a Star of David, making them instantly recognisable to the Nazi authorities. Many Jews were used as forced labour in factories and businesses outside of the ghetto. Daily life in the ghettos was administered by Nazi-appointed Judenraete (Jewish Council). Ghetto police carried out the orders of the Nazis, assisting with deportations, punishment and oppression.


After the invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 the Nazis stepped up their policy against those they hated through murder on an industrial scale. By December 1941 over 1.5 million Jews had been killed by beatings, starvation or mass shootings. Camps were established as soon as the Nazis came to power and those who were considered to be opponents of the regime were imprisoned and treated with great brutality.

The first concentration camp was established at Dachau on 23 March 1933. Following Kristallnacht huge numbers of Jews were imprisoned in camps simply because they were Jews. As the Nazis captured more territory the camp system was greatly expanded and used as a tool in the creation of the racial state.

The Wannsee Conference (20/01/1942) attended by German SS and State Officials saw the formulation of the attempted mass-deportation of European Jews to extermination camps that existed or were being constructed in German-occupied Poland. If successful this Final Solution would see the extermination of Jews, not only in Nazi-occupied countries, but throughout Ireland, Great Britain, Sweden and Turkey. Deportation on this scale required organisation on an industrial scale and included many Government departments the Ministry of Transportation to arrange train schedules and routes, the Order of Police to direct and manage the deportation and the Foreign Office to organise cross-border travel for Jews in allied countries. The co-ordination of these deportations showed how normal hatred had become.

It is generally accepted that the Nazis attempted to disguise their intent, referring to the removal of Jews from ghettos to extermination camps as resettlement in the East. Jews would be rounded up from the ghettos and made to prepare for their resettlement taking with them few of their most valuable possessions if they were able.

The Germans used freight and passenger trains for the deportations. No food or water was provided for those on the trains, despite being sealed into packed freight cars with little or no room to sit or lay down those inside endured intense heat during the summer and freezing temperatures during the winter. Aside from a bucket, there was no sanitary facilities, adding to the indignity faced by those being deported. Many of those packed onto these trains died on route to the camps through starvation or over-crowding.

Auschwitz-Birkenau was the largest Nazi extermination camp, where transports such as these arrived on a daily basis from virtually every Nazi-occupied country in Europe.

Life in the Camps

The first concentration camp was established at Dachau on 23 March 1933. As the Nazis captured more territory, the camp system was greatly expanded and used as a tool in the creation of a single-race state. In total, the Nazis created approximately 20,000 camps including transit, forced labour, and extermination camps throughout German-occupied countries.

Camp inmates were subject to forced labour, overcrowding, poor sanitary conditions, starvation and cruel treatment with many thousands dying.

The Nazis extended the camp system to include 6 extermination camps: Chelmno, Treblinka, Sobibor, Belzec, Majdanek and Auschwitz-Birkenau. The mobile killing units which were originally used to kill inmates were expanded with the development of gas chambers.


Arrival in the camp started with a selection process men, women and children were removed from the transports, which arrived daily and had their valuables taken away. Men were separated from women and children. A Nazi physician would quickly assess whether each person was healthy enough to survive forced labour, and based on this visual inspection, individuals were sent to the camps or to the gas chambers. The disabled, elderly, pregnant women, babies, young children or the sick, stood little chance of surviving this selection.

Those who were selected for death were led to the gas chambers, and, in order to prevent panic, some victims were told they were going to the showers to remove the lice from their bodies. They were made to hand over any remaining valuables and remove all of their clothes. After being ushered into the gas chambers, the doors would be shut and bolted. In some extermination centres, carbon monoxide was pumped into the chambers, and in others, a toxic insecticide called Zyklon-B. The poison took up to 20 minutes to kill those in the chambers. Camp prisoners were then forced by the SS guards to remove the corpses from the chambers and to remove hair, gold teeth and fillings. The corpses were then burned in ovens within the crematoria or were buried in mass graves.

Bergen Belsen

Bergen Belsen was set up in 1940 as a Prisoner of War camp until 1943, when it was divided into the prisoners camp and the Star Camp in which prisoners classed as valuable and whom the Nazis planned to exchange with the Allies for German civilians. Few prisoners were exchanged. Bergen-Belsen also served as a collection camp for sick and injured prisoners transported from other concentration camps. They were housed in a separate section, the so-called hospital camp. Bergen Belsen was also the destination of survivors of death marches from other concentration camps. It is estimated there were over 60,000 prisoners in Belsen by April 1945. Approximately 35,000 prisoners died of typhus, malnutrition and starvation in the first few months of 1945.

Many Nazi concentration camps were built as forced labour camps, supplying cheap manual labour to local industries. Work was hard and treatment was brutal. Not working quickly or hard enough, whilst being starved, was punishable by death.

Theresienstadt concentration camp

Theresienstadt (often referred to as Terezin) was set up as a transit camp. Its main purpose was to serve as a transit camp for European Jews on their way to Auschwitz. Conditions were incredibly harsh. In a space previously inhabited by 7,000 Czechs, now over 50,000 Jews were gathered. Food was scarce, punishment by beatings or death was the norm. Terezin supplied slave labour to local industries.

Terezin was publicised by the Nazis as a place of high culture many artists, musicians and others from the arts were held there prior to deportation. But the camp served as a much more sinister propaganda exercise. Under pressure from the international community, the Nazis permitted the International Red Cross to visit the transit camp in July 1944. An intensive period of deportations took place prior to the visit, and the camp was beautified gardens were planted, concerts were held and a propaganda film was created. The hoax worked and the International Red Cross were satisfied with the treatment of the prisoners. After the visit, deportations resumed.

Badge system

Although the symbols worn by prisoners differed from camp to camp, the Nazis used the wearing of badges to differentiate between the prisoners in camps. The wearing of badges and prisoner numbers signified the absolute removal of human rights of an individual.

The badges sewn onto prisoner uniforms enabled SS guards to identify the alleged grounds for incarceration, although these did differ from camp to camp, its generally accepted that:

Yellow star or triangle Jewish prisoner
Green triangle Criminals
Red triangle Political prisoners
Black triangles Roma & Sinti (Gypsies), asocials, (nonconformists, vagrants, Lesbians)
Pink triangles Gay men
Purple triangles Jehovahs Witnesses

Prisoners also had the first initial of the place they came from on their badges if they were non-German, and a variety of colours if they fell into a number of categories (ie a Jewish political prisoner would have a yellow and red star).

We look to survivor stories to tell us more about what life was like in the camps.

Liberation, Resistance & Rescuers


Jews responded to the ghetto restrictions with a variety of resistance efforts. Ghetto residents frequently engaged in so-called illegal activities, such as smuggling food, medicine, weapons or intelligence across the ghetto walls, often without the knowledge or approval of the Jewish councils.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

The most well-known attempt by Jews to resist the Nazi regime took place in the Warsaw Ghetto in April 1943 and lasted for almost a month.

This was organised by the Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa Z.O.B (Jewish Fighting Organisation), and headed by 23 year old Mordecai Anielewicz with the aim of encouraging Jewish inhabitants to resist being rounded up into rail cars which would take them to the concentration camps.

In January 1943 shots had been fired during one such deportation by the Z.O.B using the small number of arms that had been smuggled into the Ghetto. After a few days of the attack, Nazi troops retreated. This success inspired further revolt.

On 19 April 1943 the Nazis entered the Warsaw Ghetto to carry out its liquidation approximately 750 Z.O.B fighters fought the well-armed and trained soldiers. The revolt lasted for just over a month until, on 16 May they were finally defeated. More than 56,000 Jews were taken from the Warsaw Ghetto during the liquidation with 7000 being shot upon capture and the remaining 49,000 deported to concentration camps.

There were also violent revolts in Vilna, Bialystok, Czestochowa, and several smaller ghettos.


Many people and organisations rescued victims of the Nazi regime. Some non-Jewish rescuers have been recognised by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations for their actions during the Holocaust. Those regarded as rescuers may have hidden someone for a few hours, overnight or two or three years. Some may have saved one life, others saved thousands. Whatever the scale each deed was as significant as each other. Both the Talmud and the Koran remind us: Whoever saves a life, it is as if he saved the world entire.

During the Nazi period everyone had to make moral choices. Some people became perpetrators, others were bystanders. A small minority chose to help the persecuted these are the rescuers and helpers. This was an extraordinary selfless choice. It meant risking not only their own lives but the lives of their own family and children. Many paid with their lives. None succeeded in halting the Holocaust but many people were enabled to survive as a result of their efforts. Each chose to defy the power of the Nazis and their collaborators mostly single-handedly. That choice made a huge difference to many individual lives. More importantly they showed the power of the individual and provided hope in otherwise hopeless circumstances by demonstrating the importance of moral courage in action.

During the Nazi period the vast majority of people were not perpetrators, but bystanders. We know that fear was a major contributing factor to the success of Nazi policy generally and the genocide of Jews, and the persecution of Roma and Sinti, Black, disabled and Lesbian and Gay people specifically.

But there were courageous people who stood out from time to time. They were found in every Nazi-occupied country and from all walks of life. What is clear is that most of these people were very ordinary people, making individual choices of conscience. Their actions demonstrated that true heroes are often just ordinary people acting on their convictions. Many were surprised that what they had done was deemed to be exceptional.

The Nazis were brutal in their reprisals against anyone caught trying to assist. Bystanders therefore had good reason to be concerned for their personal safety. This in turn makes the actions of those who did resist the more remarkable. Their actions were selfless, but no less calculated. They knew the potential risk, but took the risk anyway.

Frank Foley

Frank Foley was born in Somerset in 1884. In the 1930s, he worked for the Foreign Office and became Head of the British Passport Control Office in Germany. Eyewitnesses recall Mr Foley as an unassuming hero a small, slightly overweight man with round glasses. However, Foley was in fact Britains most senior spy in Berlin.

During his time in Berlin, Foley is known to have saved an estimated 10,000 German Jews after Hitler and the Nazi Party came to power in Germany in 1933. He used his role in the Passport Office as a cover for his real job as an Intelligence Officer working for the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), later called MI6. This made his efforts on behalf of the Jews even more dangerous.

Foley first moved to work in Berlin in 1920. He was therefore able to observe and report back on the political and social changes that took place in Germany as a result of the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazi Party. Foley was also able to see the impact of the many anti-Semitic measures introduced by the Nazis and the effect these had on the every day lives of Jews.

If he had been arrested, Foley would have had no diplomatic immunity as he was working as a spy, but for years he ignored many Nazi laws and helped Jews leave the country. He made no money from his rescue efforts but risked his own life to save so many others. He also did not seek recognition or praise for his acts of rescue.

Foley broke many Nazi laws, for example he entered concentration camps such as Sachsenhausen and presented visas to the camp authorities so that Jews could be freed to travel. Foley also hid Jews in his home and used his secret service skills to help them obtain false papers, forged passports and visas. By issuing these visas, Foley was also breaking British laws.

Whilst Oskar Schindlers efforts in saving thousands of Jews were immortalised in the book Schindlers Ark by Thomas Keneally and the film Schindlers List by Steven Spielberg, Frank Foleys bravery has gone largely unnoticed.

Schindler was a factory owner, employing and thereby saving the lives of 1,400 Jews who would ordinarily have been sent to the concentration camps.

Many of the Jews Schindler saved remained in contact after fleeing Germany, thus giving a voice to his story.

In contrast, many of the thousands helped to safety with forged visas supplied by Frank Foley, were unaware of the identity of their life saving benefactor.

Many Jews would arrive in Palestine with visas they knew they shouldnt have, so understandably kept this information quiet.

During his lifetime, Foley received no recognition or honour for his actions in the UK. In 1999 though, Foleys actions resulted in his being recognised as Righteous Amongst the Nations at Yad Vashem in Israel.

On 24th November 2004, the 120th anniversary of Foleys birth, a plaque was unveiled in his honour at the British Embassy in Berlin. Amongst those who travelled to Berlin to take part in a special ceremony was Elisheva Lernau, 91 who had been rescued by Foley. Elisheva said, His name is written on my heart I owe my life to this man I never met, a man of humanity in a time of unparalleled inhumanity.

In Highbridge, Somerset a plaque has been placed on the house where Foley was born and in May 2005 a statue was unveiled in his honour.


When Allied troops began a number of offensive strikes in Nazi-occupied Europe, they began to uncover the concentration camps throughout. After the first liberation the camp of Majdanek in Poland in summer 1944, Nazi forces began to burn down the crematoria and the mass graves. Prisoners were forced to walk into the interior of Germany, already suffering from starvation and ill-treatment, many died on the enforced death march.

In late 1944, Soviet troops also overran the sites Sobibor, Belzec, and Treblinka, which had been disused by the Nazis from 1943.
Soviet soldiers liberated Auschwitz-Birkenau on 27 January 1945. They found several thousand emaciated survivors, and the smouldering remains of the gas chambers and crematoria the Nazi attempt to destroy evidence of their crimes against humanity. In the following months, the Soviets liberated Stutthof, Sachsenhausen and Ravensbruck.

US troops liberated Buchenwald in April 1945, followed by Flossenburg, Dachau and Mauthausen.

British Troops liberated Bergen Belsen on 15 April 1945. Liberator Iolo Lewis recalls the sight that met the liberators:

I was absolutely horrified to find out what had happened where I stood and the inhumanity of man against man. I have never been the same since, mentally. How could people do this sort of thing to other people? The people were not lively. They were treated like animals. They had lost reason. When the medics came in they tried to save a lot of people.

We cannot begin to imagine the scenes which confronted the liberators. Disease such as typhoid was rife, and an ever present danger to the malnourished survivors. Many camps had to be burnt to the ground in order to ensure the containment of diseases. The liberation of the camps exposed the full extent of the Nazis Final Solution to the rest of the world.

Life after the Holocaust

The Nuremberg Trials

After the war, judges from the Allied powers convened to bring those responsible for crimes committed during the Holocaust to trial. These took place in Nuremberg, Germany between 1945 and 1946. 22 Nazis were bought before the court, with 12 being sentenced to death. Charged with Crimes against Humanity, the majority of the defendants pleaded guilty to the charges against them, but claimed they were just following orders. Those who were directly involved with the murder of over 11 million men, women and children were most harshly sentenced however, those who played a large role in the Holocaust, who facilitated the Nazis Final Solution (eg Government officials, business-men who used forced labour, and other executives) were sentenced to lenient prison sentences or no punishment at all.

Many Nazi war criminals, including Adolf Hitler who committed suicide at the end of the war, were never sentenced. Many fled the country and have never been found. However, people like the late survivor Simon Wiesenthal continued to hunt Nazis across the world. Wiesenthal found Adolf Eichmann, who had helped to instigate the Final Solution in Argentina, and he was brought to trial and executed in 1961.

The Nuremberg Trials led to the establishment of The International Criminal Court in 2002 over 50 years later as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. As of July 2010 111 States are members of the ICC.

(Goaty: How Nazis Escaped Justice in SouthAmerica:

Rebuilding Lives

Despite what they went through survivors never clamoured to be heard and did not demand attention. Few sought revenge against those who had tormented them and most only reluctantly claimed compensation, even for what was theirs by right. Instead, they quietly went about the business of rebuilding lives and reconstructing the societies in which they lived. They set an unrivalled example of dignity to us all.

Many survivors share their stories with us. They do not insist on any reward: to them it is a civic duty. They take heart that society is learning from what they had to suffer, the knowledge that younger generations are listening to what they have to say and carrying their message forward. Survivors are not special just because they are survivors. Most will say that they did not escape from Germany or live through the ghettos or the camps because of something intrinsic to them. Most will readily admit that they survived thanks to sheer luck. Survivors of Nazi persecution and mass murder are special because of what they survived and what they have to tell us about that horrific experience.

Few comforting stories emerged from the Nazi dark ages. One of the most important things we can learn from the survivors of Nazi persecution and mass murder is that for people who emerge from war and genocide, suffering and grief do not end instantly with the declaration of peace.

For those in the camps, liberation was a muted experience. They were alive, but they had lost everything. Thousands died of malnutrition and disease even after Allied troops arrived. The sights that greeted Allied servicemen and women marked them for ever. They brought immediate aid to the survivors in terrible conditions and at great risk to themselves. The troops and relief workers should be honoured for that bravery and skill.

But after the initial rescue, survivors often faced incomprehension and even hostility. Those who went back to their own countries frequently discovered that their homes were occupied by other people and that their belongings were gone. They were treated with fear and resentment.

About 50,000 Jewish camp survivors gathered in the British and American zones of occupation in Germany, refusing to return to places that were no more than a graveyard. Outbreaks of violent anti-semitism in Poland led to over a hundred thousand Polish Jewish survivors joining them. But no country in the world was willing to take substantial numbers of Jewish Displaced Persons, DPs, as the survivors became known.

The British government refused to allow an influx of Jewish refugees and only a few thousand came to Britain under a scheme for the distressed relatives of Jews already in the UK. The Government permitted 10,000 Jewish and non-Jewish children to enter the country but ruled out any old enough to work, even though tens of thousands of non-Jewish DPs, including Poles, Balts, Ukrainians, and ethnic Germans, were recruited for labour in Britain.

Few survivors received anything more than essential medical treatment. About 750 boys and girls who were brought to Britain by the British Jewish community were given excellent care and sustained attention but they were the exception. Neither the survivors nor the liberating troops, many of whom were traumatised by what they had seen, received the kind of support that we would deem essential to their psychological well-being.

In the post-war trials of war criminals the testimony of survivors was almost totally ignored and they were at the bottom of the list of those to get restitution. It took decades before they obtained justice. In Germany Roma and Gay men had no chance of obtaining redress: the laws under which they had been persecuted remained in force for many years. Their experiences, like the Nazi treatment of Black people, were hardly mentioned. And yet most of the former Jewish refugees and the camp survivors who reached Britain between 1938 and 1945 came through and avoided the canker of bitterness. Some completed education while others began their schooling in a new tongue. They mastered trades and professions, and embarked on productive working lives. They married and raised families. They maintained their religious affiliations and cherished memories of a culture that was now in ruins. Above all, they avoided the temptation to hate or to teach their children to hate.

Victims of Nazi Persecution

The Nazis intended to create a society which valued everyone being the same and hated anyone who did not conform to their idea of a true Aryan.

Singling out Jews for complete annihilation in the Holocaust was not the full extent of Nazi hatred. Anyone who did not fit their narrow idea of who was normal was targeted for persecution and discrimination across Nazi-occupied Europe.

The Porrajmos

Europes Gypsies were targeted by the Nazis for total destruction. The Porrajmos (The Devouring) is the term used to describe the Nazi genocide of Europes Roma and Sinti (Gypsy) population. Upward of 200,000 Gypsies were murdered or died as a result of starvation or disease. Many more were imprisoned, used as forced labour or subject to forced sterilisation and medical experimentation.

In June 1936, a Central Office to Combat the Gypsy Nuisance opened in Munich and later that year, Berlin police were given the authority to conduct raids against Gypsies so that they would not mar the image of the city as the host of the summer Olympic Games.

Between 1939 and 1940 labour camps for people avoiding work and living off crime were set up in the Czech Republic. Roma and Sinti men, women and children were also sent to camps in Lety and Hodonin, and in 1940, statistics about Gypsies, mixed Gypsies and people with Gypsy style of life were officially collected. Those found to be in any of these categories were sent to the camps. Out of c.2500 internees at these camps, over 50% were deported to Auschwitz and many more died due to starvation and maltreatment within the camps.

In June 1938, Gypsy Clean-up Week took place throughout Germany. In Roma and Sinti men, women and children were targeted for persecution, hatred and imprisonment.

The experience of Europes Gypsy population has parallels with that of the Jewish people. Both were targeted on the grounds of their race and had previously suffered centuries of discrimination. The Nuremberg Laws which prohibited marriage between Jews and Aryans and enshrined the loss of citizenship rights were also applied to Gypsies. As with Jewish children, Gypsy children were banned from public schools and Gypsies found it increasingly difficult to maintain or secure employment.

As the Second World War began, the persecution of Gypsies intensified. Deportations of Gypsies to ghettos including Lodz and to concentration camps including Dachau, Mauthausen and Auschwitz-Birkenau which had a specific Gypsy Camp began.

On 26 February 1943, the first transport of Roma and Sinti men, women and children arrived in Auschwitz-Birkenau. Of the 23,000 Gypsies imprisoned within the camp, its estimated that around 20,000 were murdered.

On 2 August 1944 the Zieguenlager (Gypsy Camp) at Auschwitz was liquidated and 2897 Roma and Sinti were exterminated in the gas chambers. The surviving prisoners were deported to Buchenwald and Ravensbruck concentration camps for forced labour.

Despite the atrocities committed against Gypsies by the Nazi regime their experiences were only fully recognised by the West German Government in 1981 and the Porrajmos is only now becoming more widely known.

listen to historian Donald Kenrick talk about the Porrajmos

Gay Victims of Nazi persecution

Lesbian and gay life in Germany began to thrive at the beginning of the 20th century. Berlin in particular was one of the most liberal cities in Europe with a number of lesbian and gay organisations, cafs, bars, publications and cultural events taking place.

By the 1920s, Paragraph 175 of the Penal Code (which criminalised homosexual acts) was being applied in an increasingly limited fashion. Magnus Hirschfelds Institute for Sexual Science led the world in its scientific approach to sexual diversity and acted as an important public centre for Berlin lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered life. In 1929 the process towards complete decriminalisation had been initiated within the German legislature.

Nazi conceptions of race, gender and eugenics dictated the regimes hostile policy on homosexuality. Within days of Hitler becoming Chancellor repression against gay men and lesbians commenced. On 6 May 1933, the Nazis violently looted and closed The Institute for Sexual Science, burning its extensive collection on the streets. Other organisations were also shut down. The existing laws were toughened and the courts and police were encouraged to take draconian steps. Unknown numbers of German gay men and lesbians fled abroad, entered into marriages in order to appear to conform to Nazi ideological norms, and experienced severe psychological trauma. The thriving gay culture in Berlin was lost.

The police established lists of homosexually active persons. Records from 1937-1940 include the names of over 90,000 suspects. Significant numbers of gay men were arrested, of whom an estimated 50,000 received severe jail sentences in brutal conditions. Most homosexuals were not sent to concentration camps but were instead exposed to inhumane treatment in police prisons. There they could be subjected to hard labour and torture, or be executed or experimented upon. The Nazis dehumanised the prisoners in their camps and some of their prisons by giving them a symbol, which coded them according to the reason for their detention, and assigned them a number to replace their name. Some 10-15,000 people were deported for being gay to concentration camps. Many, but not all, were assigned pink triangles. Most died in the camps, often from exhaustion. Many were castrated and some subjected to gruesome medical experiments. Collective murder actions were undertaken against gay detainees, exterminating hundreds at a time. Some people belonged to more than one targeted group. For example, Jewish gays wore a yellow triangle and a pink triangle together.

During the 1935 redrafting of Paragraph 175 in Germany, there was much debate about whether to include lesbianism, which had not been recognised in the earlier version. Ultimately lesbians were not included in the legislation and they were subsequently not targeted in the same way as gay men. In Austria, after Anschluss (the annexation of Austria into greater Germany under the Nazi regime), a similar debate led to the inclusion of lesbianism in the penal code. lesbians suffered the same destruction of community networks as gay men. They were allowed to play no role in public life and therefore they often experienced a double economic disadvantage.

After the war, the Allies chose not to remove the Nazi-amended Paragraph 175. Neither they, nor the new German states, nor Austria would recognise homosexual prisoners as victims of the Nazis a status essential to qualify for reparations. Indeed, many gay men continued to serve their prison sentences.

People who had been persecuted by the Nazis for being gay had a hard choice: either to bury their experience and pretend it never happened with all the personal consequences of such an action or to try to campaign for recognition in an environment where the same neighbours, the same law, same police and same judges prevailed.

Unsurprisingly very few victims came forward. Those who did even those who had fought the Nazis and survived death camps were thwarted at every turn. Few known victims are still alive but research is now beginning to reveal the hidden history of Nazi homophobia and post-war discrimination.

read the testimony of Albrecht Becker who was persecuted by the Nazis

listen to Ben Sumerskill of Stonewall speak about LGB discrimination

In 1934, a special Gestapo (Secret State Police) division on homosexuals was set up. One of its first acts was to order the police pink lists from all over Germany The police had been compiling these lists of suspected homosexual men since 1900. On September 1, 1935, a harsher, amended version of Paragraph 175 of the Criminal Code, originally framed in 1871, went into effect, punishing a broad range of lewd and lascivious behavior between men. In 1936 Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler created a Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion: Special Office (II S), a subdepartment of Executive Department II of the Gestapo. The linking of homosexuality and abortion reflected the Nazi regimes population policies to promote a higher birthrate of its Aryan population. On this subject Himmler spoke in Bad Tlz on February 18, 1937, before a group of high-ranking SS officers on the dangers both homosexuality and abortion posed to the German birthrate.

Under the revised Paragraph 175 and the creation of Special Office IIS, the number of prosecutions increased sharply, peaking in the years 1937-1939. Half of all convictions for homosexual activity under the Nazi regime occurred during these years. The police stepped up raids on homosexual meeting places, seized address books of arrested men to find additional suspects, and created networks of informers to compile lists of names and make arrests.

An estimated 1.2 million men were homosexuals in Germany in 1928. Between 1933-45, an estimated 100,000 men were arrested as homosexuals, and of these, some 50,000 officially defined homosexuals were sentenced. Most of these men spent time in regular prisons, and an estimated 5,000 to 15,000 of the total sentenced were incarcerated in concentration camps.

How many of these 5,000 to 15,000 175ers perished in the concentration camps will probably never be known. Historical research to date has been very limited. One leading scholar, Ruediger Lautmann, believes that the death rate for 175ers in the camps may have been as high as sixty percent.

All prisoners of the camps wore marks of various colors and shapes, which allowed guards and camp functionaries to identify them by category. The uniforms of those sentenced as homosexuals bore, various identifying marks, including a large black dot and a large 175″ drawn on the back of the jacket. Later a pink triangular patch (rosa Winkel) appeared. Conditions in the camps were generally harsh for all inmates, many of whom died from hunger, disease, exhaustion, exposure to the cold, and brutal treatment. Many survivors have testified that men with pink triangles were often treated particularly severely by guards and inmates alike because of widespread biases against homosexuals. As was true with other prisoner categories, some homosexuals were also victims of cruel medical experiments, including castration. At Buchenwald concentration camp, SS physician Dr. Carl Vaernet performed operations designed to convert men to heterosexuals: the surgical insertion of a capsule which released the male hormone testosterone. Such procedures reflected the desire by Himmler and others to find a medical solution to homosexuality.

The vast majority of homosexual victims were males; lesbians were not subjected to systematic persecution. While lesbian bars were closed, few women are believed to have been arrested. Paragraph 175 did not mention female homosexuality. Lesbianism was seen by many Nazi officials as alien to the nature of the Aryan woman. In some cases, the police arrested lesbians as asocials or prostitutes. One woman, Henny Schermann, was arrested in 1940 in Frankfurt and was labeled licentious Lesbian on her mug shot; but she was also a stateless Jew, sufficient cause for deportation. Among the Jewish inmates at Ravensbrck concentration camp selected for extermination, she was gassed in the Bernburg psychiatric hospital, a euthanasia killing center in Germany, in 1942.

Consequently, the vast majority of homosexuals arrested under Paragraph 175 were Germans or Austrians. Unlike Jews, men arrested as homosexuals were not systematically deported to Nazi-established ghettos in eastern Europe. Nor were they transported in mass groups of homosexual prisoners to Nazi extermination camps in Poland.

It should be noted that Nazi authorities sometimes used the charge of homosexuality to discredit and undermine their political opponents. Charges of homosexuality among the SA (Storm trooper) leadership figured prominently among justifications for the bloody purge of SA chief Ernst Rhm in June 1934. Nazi leader Hermann Gring used trumped-up accusations of homosexual improprieties to unseat army supreme commander Von Fritsch, an opponent of Hitlers military policy, in early 1938. Finally, a 1935 propaganda campaign and two show trials in 1936 and 1937 alleging rampant homosexuality in the priesthood, attempted to undercut the power of the Roman Catholic Church in Germany, an institution which many Nazi officials considered their most powerful potential enemy.

After the war, homosexual concentration camp prisoners were not acknowledged as victims of Nazi persecution, and reparations were refused. Under the Allied Military Government of Germany, some homosexuals were forced to serve out their terms of imprisonment, regardless of the time spent in concentration camps. The 1935 version of Paragraph 175 remained in effect in the Federal Republic (West Germany) until 1969, so that well after liberation, homosexuals continued to fear arrest and incarceration.

Research on Nazi persecution of homosexuals was impeded by the criminalization and social stigmatization of homosexuals in Europe and the United States in the decades following the Holocaust. Most survivors were afraid or ashamed to tell their stories. Recently, especially in Germany, new research findings on these forgotten victims have been published, and some survivors have broken their silence to give testimony.

Full movie “Bent” starring Clive Owen, also Mick Jagger.

A film about the rarely acknowledged persecution and annihilation of German homosexuals in the Nazi concentration camps.

Disabled Victims and the T4 Euthanasia Programme

Mentally and physically disabled people were targeted under Nazi hatred. From 1939 1941 the Nazis carried out their T4 programme (so called because Tiergartenstrasse 4 was the headquarters of the General Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care in Berlin).

People with physical disabilities, mental health needs and chronic illnesses were deemed to be damaging to the common good by the Nazi party. In 1933 the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring allowed for the forced sterilisation of those regarded as unfit, including people with conditions such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and alcoholism. Prisons, nursing homes, asylums, care homes for the elderly and special schools were targeted to select people for sterilisation. It has been estimated that between 1933 and 1939, 360,000 individuals were subjected to forced sterilisation.

In 1939 the killing of disabled children and adults began. From August 1939 the Interior Ministry required doctors and midwives to report all cases of newborns with severe disabilities. All children under the age of three who were suffering from illnesses or disabilities, such as Downs syndrome, hydrocephaly, cerebral palsy or suspected idiocy, were targeted under the T4 programme. A panel of medical experts were required to give their approval for the euthanasia of each child.

Many parents were unaware of the fate of their children, instead being told that they were being sent for improved care. After a period of time parents were told their children had died of pneumonia and their bodies cremated to stop the spread of disease.

Following the outbreak of war in September 1939 the programme expanded with less emphasis on assessment and approval. Adults with disabilities, chronic illnesses, mental health problems and criminals who were not of German origin were included in the programme. Six killing centres were established to speed up the process, the previous methods of killing people by lethal injection or starvation being too slow to cope with large numbers of adults. The first experimental gassings took place at the killing centre in Brandenberg and thousands of disabled patients were killed in gas chambers disguised as shower rooms.

The model used for killing disabled people was later applied to the industrialised murder within Nazi concentration camps such as Auschwitz-Birkenau.

It is estimated that close to 250,000 disabled people were murdered under the Nazi regime.

watch the story of Robert Wagemann whose Mother saved him from the T4 programme

Black experience

Although there was no systematic elimination of Black people under the Nazi regime it is clear that many were persecuted, alienated and even murdered during this period. In the 1920s, around 24,000 Black people were living in Germany.

Following World War One and the Treaty of Versailles (1919), the victorious Allies occupied the Rhineland in western Germany. The use of French colonial troops, some of whom were Black, in these occupation forces exacerbated anti-Black racism in Germany. Racist propaganda against Black soldiers depicted them as rapists of German women and carriers of venereal and other diseases. The Nazis, at the time a small political movement, viewed them as a threat to the purity of the Germanic race. In Mein Kampf, Hitler charged that the Jews had brought the Negroes into the Rhineland with the clear aim of ruining the hated white race by the necessarily-resulting bastardisation. Nazi propaganda posters, showing friendship across racial groups, referred to a loss of racial pride. African-German mixed race children were economically and socially marginalised in German society, and not allowed to attend university. Racial discrimination prohibited them from seeking most jobs, including service in the military.

When the Nazis came to power, one of the first directives was aimed at these mixed-race children. Underscoring Hitlers obsession with racial purity, by 1937, every identified mixed-race child in the Rhineland had been forcibly sterilised, in order to prevent further race polluting, as Hitler termed it.

Hans Hauck, a Black survivor of Nazi racial policies and a victim of the mandatory sterilisation programme, explained in the film Hitlers Forgotten Victims that, when he was forced to undergo sterilisation as a teenager, he was given no anaesthetic. Once he received his sterilisation certificate, he was free to go, as long as he agreed to have no sexual relations with Germans.

To help usher in the Nazi dream of a pure, blond haired, blue-eyed race, Black Germans, like Jews, Roma and Sinti, Gay people and those with any criminal record were called asocial. Many Black people found that under the Nazis they no longer had jobs and that they were excluded from many aspects of life.

European and American Blacks were also interned in the Nazi concentration camp system. Lionel Romney, a sailor in the U.S. Merchant Marine, was imprisoned in the Mauthausen concentration camp. Jean Marcel Nicolas, a Haitian national, was incarcerated in the Buchenwald and Dora-Mittelbau concentration camps in Germany. Jean Voste, an African Belgian, was incarcerated in the Dachau concentration camp. Bayume Mohamed Hussein from Tanganyika (today Tanzania) died in the Sachsenhausen camp, near Berlin.

Black prisoners of war faced illegal incarceration and mistreatment at the hands of the Nazis, who did not uphold the regulations imposed by the Geneva Convention (International agreement on the conduct of war and the treatment of wounded and captured soldiers). Lieutenant Darwin Nicholas, an African American pilot, was incarcerated in a Gestapo prison in Butzbach. Black soldiers of the American, French, and British Armies were worked to death on construction projects or died as a result of mistreatment in concentration or prisoner-of-war camps. Others were never even incarcerated, but were instead immediately killed by the SS or Gestapo.

As the war progressed and Prisoners of War were taken, the Nazi regime separated Black prisoners from white ones. Once taken prisoner by Hitlers troops, Black prisoners received harsher treatment and less food than white POWs and whilst most white POWs were imprisoned many of the Black soldiers either worked until they died or were executed.

read about the persecution of Black people under the Nazi regime

Jehovahs Witnesses

On 1 April 1935 the Nazis made it illegal to be a Jehovahs Witness. Thousands were imprisoned or murdered for their refusal to swear allegiance to the Nazi regime or to participate in military combat. Jehovahs Witnesses faced an impossible decision. They could only secure their own release by renouncing their faith. Most refused and faced continued imprisonment or execution.

Approximately 2,000 Jehovahs Witnesses were murdered under the Nazi regime, 250 of whom were executed for refusing to take part in armed conflict.

read the testimony of Simone Arnold


The Nazis incarcerated and murdered those they deemed to be asocial including those who were politically opposed to national socialism, such as Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Trade Union leaders and those who were imprisoned due to criminal activity.

In order to identify these prisoners within a camp, the Nazis used a badge system criminals wore a green triangle, political opponents a red triangle and black for non-conformists (including vagrants and in some cases, the Roma and Sinti).

read the collected letters of Marian Serejski in I am healthy and I feel fine who was held as a political prisoner in Auschwitz

Non-Jewish Poles and Slavic Prisoners of War

The Nazis viewed Poles and other Slavic peoples as inferior, and slated them for subjugation, forced labour, and eventual annihilation. Poles who were considered ideologically dangerous (including thousands of intellectuals and Catholic priests) were targeted for execution in an operation known as AB-Aktion. Between 1939 and 1945, at least 1.5 million Polish citizens were deported to German territory for forced labour. Hundreds of thousands were also imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps. It is estimated that the Germans killed at least 1.9 million non-Jewish Polish civilians during World War Two.

In the German-occupied Soviet Union, the Commissar Order (issued to the German army by the Armed Forces High Command) targeted Red Army political officers to be murdered. During the autumn and winter of 1941-1942, German military authorities and the German Security Police collaborated on a racist policy of mass murder by shooting of Soviet Prisoners of War, Jews, persons with Asiatic features, and top political and military leaders. Around three million others were held in makeshift camps without proper shelter, food, or medicine with the deliberate intent that they die.

read This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentleman, a series of short stories by Polish Poet who was imprisoned in Auschwitz

Copied (in the public interest) from:

Holocaust Memorial Day Trust logo

Holocaust Memorial Day Trust
PO Box 61074
London SE1P 5BX
(t) 0845 838 1883
2005 2013 Holocaust Memorial Day Trust, all rights reserved. The Holocaust Memorial Day Trust is a registered charity. No. 1109348

Colour footage of the Third Reich and their crimes

(Credit: Youtube user itseasyforyou)


Victims of Nazi anatomists named

BBC NEWS 28 January 2013 Last updated at 03:39

By Victoria Gill BBC reporter

Liane Berkowitz (c) German Resistance Memorial Centre Teenage victim: Liane Berkowitz was pregnant when she was imprisoned by the Nazi regime

Liane Berkowitz was just 19 years old when she was executed by the Nazis.

She was arrested by the Gestapo in 1942 when they caught her putting up posters that displayed messages of protest against an exhibition of Nazi propaganda. She was pregnant at the time of her arrest, but this just led to her execution being postponed until after the birth of her child.

Lianes grim story did not end in her death; her body was one of thousands that were delivered to anatomists and used for dissection and experimentation.

The identity of victims who met this same fate is now coming to light thanks to researchers who are scouring legal records to identify the victims of Nazi terror who ended up on anatomists dissection tables.

Liane was one of 182 people whose corpses were claimed by the anatomy researcher Hermann Stieve, who, at the time, was a leading anatomist at the University of Berlin.

The full names of the people on Stieves list the vast majority of whom were women has now been published by Dr Sabine Hildebrandt, a German-born anatomist based at the University of Michigan.

Stieve himself put this list together in 1946, explained Dr Hildebrandt, who has been investigating the history of German anatomy for a decade. Stieves own thorough record of his macabre work has enabled her to identify his victims.

Stieves crimes have been exposed, but Dr Hildebrandt has now focused her efforts of telling the stories of his victims.

I wanted to find out who these people were, Dr Hildebrandt told the BBC. I wanted to make them known again.

Doomed women

Stieve was interested particularly in reproductive anatomy; a key reason why so many victims on his list were women.

Before 1933, he was able to source the bodies of executed men, but no women; Germany was not executing women.

Then, suddenly, during the Third Reich, women were being executed too.

About half of these women, including Liane Berkowitz, were executed for treason; some were betrayed to the Gestapo by fellow citizens for airing their anti-Nazi politics.

William Seidelman, former professor of medicine at the University of Toronto, has also spent years uncovering links between medicine and murder in the Third Reich.

In a 1999 paper in Dimensions: A Journal of Holocaust Studies he revealed some of the details of how Stieve worked closely with the prison in Berlin where prisoners were executed.

When a woman of reproductive age was due to be executed, Stieve was informed, a date of execution was decided upon, and the prisoner told the scheduled date of her death, wrote Prof Seidelman.

Stieve was particularly interested in the effects of stress and psychological trauma on the doomed womans menstrual pattern.

Upon the womans execution, her pelvic organs were removed for examination. Stieve published reports based on those studies without hesitation or apology.

Stieve referred to the organs he used as material. His publications during this time were some of the first to suggest that stress in the form of being sentenced to death disrupted a womans menstrual cycle.

In a mission to reveal the human lives behind this material, Dr Hildebrandt studied through the personal files of Stieves victims, which are held at the Memorial Site for the German Resistance in Berlin.

She cross-checked each file against a copy of Stieves list that is on file at the German Ministry of Justice, identifying every person on the list.

Continue reading the main story

Nazi experiments

  • According to medical historian Paul Weindling, almost 25,000 victims of Nazi scientific experiments have now been identified.
  • Dr Weindling says there were different phases to the Nazis experiments. The first was linked to eugenics and forced sterilisation.
  • The second phase coincided with the start of the war. Doctors began experimenting on patients in psychiatric hospitals, Prof Weindling writes in a BBC report. Sporadic experiments were made in concentration camps like Sachsenhausen near Berlin, and anthropological observations at Dachau.
  • The third phase began in 1942, when the SS and German military took greater control of the experiments. There was a surge in the numbers of experiments, with lethal diseases including malaria and louse-borne typhus administered to thousands of victims.
  • During a fourth phase in 1944-45, explains Dr Weindling, scientists knew the war was lost but they continued their experiments.

Dr Hildebrandt noted the correct spelling of the names of the 174 women and eight men on the list, their exact dates of birth and death, their nationality, the reason for their execution and any other biographical information she could find.

Some of the files contained personal letters expressing final wishes of condemned prisoners. Some of them expressed wishes to be reunited with their families in death, said Dr Hildebrandt.

One letter by Libertas Schulze-Boysen, a German-born resistance fighter who was once a member of the Nazi party, but left in 1937 and went on join the resistance and collect photographic evidence documenting National Socialist crimes of violence.

Libertas was arrested in September 1942 and sentenced to death for treason in December of the same year.

In a letter to her mother, she wrote: As a last wish I have asked that my material substance be left to you. If possible, bury me in a beautiful place amidst sunny nature.

Dark history

Dr Hildenbrandt said that her research made it painfully clear how little anatomists at the time were interested in the fate of the people whose bodies they were dissecting.

This left German anatomical research tainted by association.

Of the 31 anatomical departments at universities in Germany and its occupied territories between 1933 and 1945, Dr Hildebrandt found that all of them without exception received bodies of the executed from execution chambers.

The issue only came to public attention in the past two decades.

Prof Seidelman explained that, in 1989, an anatomy lecturer at the University of Tubingen indicated that specimens he was showing were from Russian or Polish slave labourers executed during the Third Reich.

Prof Seidelman told the BBC: The students were dismayed and demanded an explanation.

The university held a formal investigation, and all anatomy specimens of suspect or uncertain origin were buried in a special section of the Tubingen cemetery and, on July 8, 1990, a commemorative ceremony was held.

Continue reading the main story

Pernkopfs Atlas: A textbook tainted by Nazi association

Image from Pernkopf's Atlas of Anatomy
  • Eduard Pernkopf, chairman of anatomy at the University of Vienna between 1933 and 1945, was a member of the Nazi party whose sourcing of executed prisoners for dissections is on permanent record in his now infamous anatomical atlas.
  • The detailed illustrations in anatomical atlas that Pernkopf produced made it famous among anatomy students.
  • Pernkopf worked 18-hour days dissecting corpses while a team of artists created the images; he worked for over two decades on the book.
  • AS Sabine Hildebrandt revealed in a 2006 paper in the journal Clinical anatomy, as well as confirming Pernkopfs strong affiliation to the Nazi party, this project revealed the delivery of at least 1,377 bodies of executed persons to the Anatomical Institute of Vienna during the Third Reich. The possible use of these bodies as models cannot be excluded for up to half of the approximately 800 plates in the atlas.

Several universities, have carried out formal investigations into their own anatomy departments procurement of bodies during the Third Reich.

Many institutes in Austria were also involved, notably the University of Vienna.

The University of Vienna had a special streetcar hearse that delivered the cadavers from the execution chamber of the regional court to the anatomy institute, explained Prof Seidelman.

Eduard Pernkopf, who was chairman of anatomy there between 1933 and 1945, left a printed legacy in the form of a now infamous anatomy tome. It is now understood that many of the incredibly detailed illustrations in Pernkopfs atlas depicted the bodies of victims of Nazi terror.

Prof Seidelman said that researchers were at the very early stage of the journey of revealing the stories of those humans who became experimental material.

They became inanimate objects, he added.

Dr Hildebrandt agrees that the issue still casts a shadow on anatomy today, and while a great deal has been published about the crimes of the perpetrators, German post-war anatomy was built in part on the bodies of [the] victims.

She added: Its time to return the names to the numbers to give faces and biographies to the so far anonymous victims of anatomy in the Third Reich in order to remember and honour their humanity and the iniquities they had to endure.

More on This Story

Related Stories

Useful links

There are many organisations which will be able to assist and advise you with the organisation of your event. Some work with Holocaust and genocide survivors, others focus on remembrance and education and some work in community relations.

Holocaust Memorial Day Trust
0845 838 1883
PO Box 61074, London, SE1P 5BX
Follow us on Twitter

45 Aid Society Holocaust Survivors
Established in 1963 the 45 Aid Society consists mainly of survivors of concentration camps who came to Britain in 1945/46. The Society is active in the community, helps members and charities and is a major source of survivors who give testimony of their experiences to schools, councils and community groups.
Flat 4, Broadlands, Hillside Road, Radlett, Hertfordshire, WD7 7BX
Tel: 01923 850816

Aegis Trust
The Aegis Trust campaigns to prevent genocide worldwide. Aegis activities include: research, policy, education, remembrance, awareness of genocide issues in the media and humanitarian support for victims of genocide.
Aegis Trust, P.O. Box 2002, Newark, Nottinghamshire NG22 9ZG
Tel: 01623 836627

Arnold-Liebster Foundation
The Arnold-Liebster Foundation provides information and resources for teachers and students wishing to explore the experience of Jehovahs Witnesses under the Nazi regime. The website provides survivor testimony, study guides, DVD & Video resources and much more.

Article 1
Article 1 works to inform governments and citizens about the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities. We investigate and expose systematic and grave violations of human rights, making recommendations to decision-makers, the media and the public.
Tel: 020 7243 0300
Twitter: @WagingPeaceUK

Association of Jewish Refugees
The Association of Jewish Refugees provides an extensive range of social and welfare services, and grants financial assistance to Jewish victims of Nazi persecution living in Great Britain. In addition to a dedicated social services team, AJR operates a nationwide network of regional groups and offer a volunteers service and advice on Holocaust compensation claims.
Jubilee House, Merrion Avenue, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4RL
Tel: 0208 385 3070

Anne Frank Trust
The Anne Frank Trust works with young people in Britain today to help build a society based on acceptance, mutual respect, compassion and responsibility.
It does this through touring exhibitions about Anne Frank and educational work in schools. Opened in October 2010, The Anne Frank Library is the newest lending and reference specialising in books and resources about Anne Frank, the Holocaust and the wider topics of prejudice and discrimination, social responsibility, conflict and behaviour, and all the moral issues surrounding these topics. Teachers and HE/FE students are welcome to use the library, but strictly by appointment only, via the details below. The Online Catalogue enables remote access to an index of the resources available in The Anne Frank Library.
Star House, 104/108 Grafton Road, Kentish Town, London, NW5 4BA
Tel: 020 7284 5858

New iPad app: Seeing the world through Anne Franks eyes

Beth Shalom Holocaust Centre
Beth Shalom, The Holocaust Centre was Britains first dedicated Holocaust Memorial and Education centre and supports anyone needing resource and ideas for commemoration. Resources designed for commemoration are available. The Holocaust Centre is also open for individual and group visits.
Laxton, Newark, Notts, NG22 0PA
Tel: 01623 836627

Black History Month
Black History Month is celebrated across the UK every October and highlights and celebrates the achievements of the Black community and aims to uncover hidden histories of Black communities.
Studio 4, Hiltongrove, 14 Southgate Road, London, N1 3LY
Tel: 020 7407 7747

Board of Deputies of British Jews
Protects and supports the interests, religious rights and customs of Jews in the UK. The education department monitors trends in education and ensures sensitivity to Jewish needs within the national education system.
6 Bloomsbury Square, London, WC1A 2LP
Tel: 020 7543 5400

Child Survivors Association AJR
The Child Survivors Association AJR represents a group of child survivors of the Holocaust and their partners which arranges regular meetings. It is a Special Interest Group of the Association of Jewish Refugees. For more details contact Henri on 020 8954 5298 or email

Churches Together in Britain and Ireland (CTBI)
Churches Together in Britain and Ireland is the umbrella body for all the major Christian Churches in Britain and Ireland. It liaises with ecumenical bodies in Britain and Ireland as well as ecumenical organisations at European and world levels.
Tel: 020 7654 7254

Claims Conference
The Claims Conference was set up in 1951 to negotiate compensation and lost assets taken by the Nazis during the Holocaust. They also obtain funds for relief, rehabilitation and resettlement of Jewish victims of Nazi persecution.
Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany Inc. (Claims Conference)
1359 Broadway, Room 2000, New York, NY 10018.
Tel: +001 (646) 536-9100

The Council of Christians and Jews
The Council of Christians and Jews was founded in 1942. Against a background of the Second World War and the Holocaust, Chief Rabbi Hertz and Archbishop William Temple decided to take an initiative that would bring Christians and Jews together to combat anti-Semitism and other forms of prejudice in Britain. Today CCJ has more than 50 branches throughout the UK and continues to enjoy support at all levels. CCJ works with Christian and Jewish communities to promote mutual understanding and combat prejudice and anti-Semitism.
CCJ, 1st Floor, Camelford House, 89 Albert Embankment, LONDON SE1 7TP
Tel: 020 7820 0090
UK local rate number 0845 1662 205

Equality and Human Rights Commission
The Equality and Human Rights Commission champions equality and human rights for all. The Equality and Human Rights Commission was established on 1 October 2007 and carries on the work of the Commission for Racial Equality, the Disability Rights Commission and the Equal Opportunities Commission which have now been abolished.
3 More London, Riverside, Tooley Street, London, SE1 2RG
Tel: 020 3117 0235

Hindu Forum
The Hindu Forum of Britain (HFB) is the largest umbrella body for British Hindus with over 270 member organisations from different regions around the country. HFBs main activities are public policy and community consultation for the government; capacity building and project development for the Hindu community; and developing good interfaith relations with other faith communities to build a cohesive and inclusive Britain.
Unit 3, 861, Coronation Road, Park Royal, London NW10 6PT
Tel: 020 8965 0671 or 07915 383 103

Holocaust Educational Trust
HET works to promote knowledge of the Holocaust and its relevance for today and provides an outreach programme including educator-led workshops and survivor speakers. The Lessons from Auschwitz Course for teachers and post-16 students incorporate a visit to the former Nazi camp and pre and post-visit seminars.
The Holocaust Educational Trust, BCM Box 7892, London WC1N 3XX
Tel: 020 7222 6822

Holocaust Survivors Centre
The Holocaust Survivors Centre is part of Jewish Care and is a Jewish Social Centre for Survivors who lived in Europe or came to Britain as refugees. The centre offers a varied social programme including art and creative writing classes, outings to theatre, as well as a drop in cafe facility for informal get-togethers. The centre also offers practical advice and befriending. Survivor testimonies are recorded and public speaking skills developed.
Melanie Gotlieb & Rachelle Lazarus
Corner of Church Road & Parson Street, Hendon NW4 1QA
Tel: 0208 202 9844

The Holocaust Survivors Friendship Association
The HSFA is a Leeds-based charity set up in 1996. Their primary aim is to preserve the memory of the Holocaust and use its lessons to work towards a more tolerant society in which difference and diversity are celebrated. HSFA members regularly visit schools to give living witness accounts of their personal experiences as refugees, hidden children and survivors of Nazi concentration camps.
Contact HSFA Website: HSFA

Hope Survivors Foundation
Hope Survivors Foundation is an UK-based organisation, founded by survivors of the Rwandan genocide, with their supporters and friends. Formerly operating as IBUKA (UK), Hope Survivors Foundation is continuing with the same mission and objectives as before to support survivors of the genocide in Rwanda and to raise awareness of the genocide and contribute to a world free from genocide and crimes against humanity.
Tel: 07507 360001

Imperial War Museum (The Holocaust Exhibition and Crimes against Humanity)
The Holocaust Exhibition at the Imperial War Museum receives around 700 visitors daily, and features archival material and testimony to describe the Nazi persecution of the Jews and other groups. Surrounding galleries tell the wider story of conflict since 1914 and include Crimes against Humanity, an exhibition on genocide. Open daily 10am 6pm, free entry.
Imperial War Museum, Lambeth Road, London,SE1 6HZ
Tel: 020 7416 5320

Institute of Education, Holocaust Education Development Programme
FREE Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in Holocaust Education is now available to secondary school teachers and PGCE students across England. The high quality, high-impact CPD is delivered by internationally recognised experts from the Holocaust Education Development Programme (HEDP), part of the world renowned Institute of Education, University of London. The CPD has been informed by an in-depth national survey and is delivered in regional workshops providing effective, age-appropriate, classroom-ready resources.

Inter Faith Network for UK
The Inter Faith Network for the UK was founded in 1987 to promote good relations between people of different faiths in this country. Its member organisations include representative bodies from the Bahai; Buddhist; Christian; Hindu; Jain; Jewish; Muslim; Sikh; and Zoroastrian communities; national and local inter faith bodies; and academic institutions and educational bodies concerned with inter faith issues.

Jehovahs Witnesses
There were 25,000 Jehovahs Witnesses in Germany in 1933. Thousands suffered in Nazi prisons and camps. Unlike other prisoners, each Witness could be set free simply by signing a statement renouncing his faith. They were the only religious group to take a consistent, organised stand against the Nazi regime. Jehovahs Witnesses in Britain offer the Jehovahs Witnesses Stand Firm against Nazi Assault teaching pack.
Office of Public Information for Jehovahs Witnesses in Britain
Watch Tower House, The Ridgeway, LONDON NW7 1RN
Tel: 020 8906 2211

Jewish Museum, London
The Jewish Museum aims to increase knowledge and understanding of Jewish history, culture and religious life, as part of Britains diverse heritage. The London Museum of Jewish Life was founded in 1983 as the Museum of the Jewish East End, with the aim of rescuing and preserving the disappearing heritage of Londons East End the heartland of Jewish settlement in Britain. While the East End has remained an important focus, the Museum expanded to reflect the diverse roots and social history of Jewish people across London. It also developed an acclaimed programme of Holocaust and anti-racist education.

Jewish Music Institute
The Jewish Music Institute is dedicated to the celebration, preservation and development of the living heritage of Jewish music for the benefit of all. JMI Forums such as the International Forum for Suppressed Music, the International Forum for Yiddish Culture and the Forum for the Promotion of Arab-Jewish Dialogue Through Music, provide an international focus for study and musicianship.
Jewish Music Institute, SOAS, University of London, PO Box 232, Harrow, Middx, HA1 2NN
Tel: 020 8909 2445

A special interest group of the Association of Jewish Refugees, the Kindertransport represent the children who fled Nazi-controlled Germany, Austria and Czechoslovakia between 1938 and 1939 and prior to the start of the Second World War.
Contact can be made through the offices of the AJR or with Bertha on 0208 952 4280 or Hermann on 0208 427 6754

LGBT History Month
Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender History Month takes place in the UK every February and celebrates the lives and achievements of the LGBT community.
BM LGBT History Month, London, WC1N 3XX

London Jewish Cultural Centre
The London Jewish Cultural Centre works to promote anti-racist education and citizenship initiatives. Its cultural and educational programmes are aimed at a broad audience of Jews and non-Jews, encouraging inter-faith and inter-cultural dialogue and activities. They work with Holocaust survivors who tell their stories to students in schools and colleges throughout the UK. The LJCC aims to build bridges between the Jewish experience of persecution and racism and that faced by those persecuted today, whether because of race, ethnicity or cultural difference.
London Jewish Cultural Centre, Ivy House, 94 96 North End Road, London, NW11 7SX
Tel: 020 8457 5000

Manchester Jewish Museum
Manchester Jewish Museum contains the History, culture and religion of Manchester Jewry. The Holocaust is featured as it impacted upon people who came to Manchester before 1939 or who survived to leave testimonies on tape and written form. They have a number of resources about the Holocaust and can put people in contact with survivors.
Manchester Jewish Museum, 190 Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester, M8 8LW.
Tel. 0161 834 9879

The Refugee Council
The Refugee Council is the largest organisation in the UK working with asylum seekers and refugees. The Refugee Council not only gives help and support, but also works with asylum seekers and refugees to ensure their needs and concerns are addressed.
Refugee Council Head Office, 240-250 Ferndale Road, London SW9 8BB
Tel: 020 7346 6700

Show Racism the Red Card
Show Racism the Red Card is an anti-racism charity, which was established in January 1996. The aim of the organisation is to produce anti-racist educational resources, which harness the high profile of professional footballers to combat racism.
Tel: 0191 257 8519

Stephen Lawrence Charitable Trust
Established in 1998, the Stephen Lawrence Charitable Trust invests in young people whose aspirations and life chances are constrained by economic, cultural and social hardship, brroadens access to the architectural, planning and associated professions and promotes equality, diversity and social cohesion.
The Stephen Lawrence Charitable Trust, The Stephen Lawrence Centre, 39 Brookmill Road, London, SE8 4HU
Tel: 020 8100 2800

The Forum for Yom Ha Shoah
For all enquiries relating to Yom Ha Shoah, the annual Jewish day of remembrance for victims of the Holocaust, please contact the Forum.

The Survivors Fund (SURF)
SURF was established in 1997 to assist survivors of the Rwandan genocide, and works through survivor led partner organisations in Rwanda to address the complex needs of survivors. SURFs vision is a world where the rights and dignity of survivors are respected, its mission is to rebuild a sense of self and trust in humanity amongst survivors. Survivors Fund can provide resources on the Rwanda genocide, and will try to provide speakers for events where possible.
10 Rickett Street, West Brompton, London SW6 1RU
Tel: 020 7610 2589

USC Shoah Foundation Institute
Established in 1994 by Steven Spielberg to collect and preserve the testimonies of survivors and other witnesses of the Holocaust, the USC Shoah Foundation Institute maintains one of the largest video digital libraries in the world. The Institute is part of the College of Letters, Arts & Sciences at the University of Southern California; its mission is to overcome prejudice, intolerance, and bigotry and the suffering they cause through the educational use of the Institutes visual history testimonies.
Teacher Education and Resources:
Watch videos on the Institutes Youtube Channel
Join the Institutes Facebook community
Follow the Institute on Twitter

Wiener Library
The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest Holocaust memorial institution, tracing its history back to 1933. It collects material related to the Holocaust, its causes and legacies.
The Wiener Library, Institute of Contemporary History
29 Russell Square, London WC1B 5PD

Highlighting the dangers from tick-bourne diseases as man dies from killer fever – Updated 061012 1420Z


06 Oct 2012:

A 38-year-old man being treated for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust has died.

The man had recently returned home to the UK and was being treated in complete isolation after being admitted to Gartnavel General Hospital’s Brownlee Centre in Glasgow, less than three hours after arriving in Scotland.

He was then transferred to the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust. Tests revealed he flew into Scotland from Dubai, though his journey originated in the Afghan capital, Kabul.

It was the first recorded case of the deadly disease in the UK. Other passengers who sat close to him on an aircraft are undergoing daily health checks. –  Sky News (link to full story)

Glasgow man ‘critical’ with first UK case of killer fever

05 Oct 2012: A GLASGOW man is being treated in isolation after becoming the first person diagnosed in Britain with the potentially lethal Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

The 38-year-old is in a critical condition at the Brownlee specialist unit at Gartnavel Hospital in Glasgow.

He was admitted on Tuesday afternoon, less than three hours after flying into the city at 12:35pm on a connecting flight from Dubai. Test results confirmed his condition yesterday. – (link to full story)

Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (link to Wikipedia)

17 May, 2012: Five people have died in the Black Sea region of Turkey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, one of the diseases that can be transmitted by tick bites.

(Photo: NHS Cumbria – Click on photo for advice from NHS Cumbria)

Lyme disease is a bacterial infection that is spread to humans by infected ticks. Ticks are tiny, spider-like insects found in woodland areas that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans.

Tick bites often go unnoticed and the tick can remain feeding for several days before dropping off. The longer the tick is in place, the higher the risk of it passing on the infection.

Lyme disease can affect your skin, joints, heart and nervous system

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in Europe and North America. People who spend time in woodland or heath areas are more at risk of developing Lyme disease because these areas are where tick-carrying animals, such as deer and mice, live.

The Health Protection Agency (HPA) estimates that there are 2,000 to 3,000 cases of Lyme disease in England and Wales each year, and that about 15%-20% of cases occur while people are abroad.

Parts of the UK that are known to have a high population of ticks include:

the New Forest in Hampshire
the South Downs
parts of Wiltshire and Berkshire
Thetford Forest in Norfolk
the Lake District
the Yorkshire Moors
the Scottish Highlands

Most tick bites occur in late spring, early summer and during the autumn because these are the times of year when most people take part in outdoor activities, such as hiking and camping – NHS Choices

More about Lyme disease here:

Lyme is just one of a lengthening list of emerging infectious diseases that are soaring.

Experts say that increasing temperatures and altered precipitation patterns that accompany climate change are already playing at least a partial role in the spread and intensity of zoonoses — infectious agents that begin in animals and account for an estimated 75 percent of all newly emerging diseases -� Huffington Post

More about global warming and newly emerging diseases here:

The Dangers of Tick Bites…and how to avoid being bitten! See:

Kristin Collins, Wisconsin Lyme Network VP and mother of Darren, a young boy who contacted Lyme Disease said,

“I know hundreds and hundreds of families dealing with this..” “It’s heart-wrenching. It’s scary. It’s everywhere. Our kids are at a huge risk.”

Early treatment is vital – If you spot a tick on your skin, know how to remove it and/or seek medical attention immediately

Ireland: W. Cork Measles Outbreak, 51 Teens Infected – Published 11 June 2012

Parents are being warned about the importance of protecting their children against measles following an outbreak of the infectious disease in County Cork.

The Public Health Agency (PHA) is urging families to get their children fully immunised with two doses of MMR before travelling to the south of Ireland or to other European countries during the summer months.

The warning came after 51 children were diagnosed with measles in west Cork. Two of them were admitted to hospital for further treatment.

Most of the infected children are teenagers and 88% of them had never received any dose of MMR vaccine. Although measles can occur at any age, it is most common in children.

However, the disease is life threatening at any age.

Measles can be caught either through direct contact with an infected person, or through the air when the patient coughs or sneezes. Dr Gerry Waldron is Acting Assistant Director of Public Health (Health Protection) with the PHA.

He says it is never too late to get immunised.

“If children are not vaccinated they are left exposed to a serious and potentially fatal disease.

“MMR immunisation is the safest and most effective way to prevent measles infection and it is never too late to get vaccinated.”

Northern Ireland has high uptake levels for MMR, Dr Waldron said, before adding that this was a great tribute to the medical staff involved in the immunisation programme and also parents.

“MMR uptake rates are very high – just over 93% of children have received it by the age of two and by five years of age,” he said.

Monday, 11 June, 2012 at 13:26 (01:26 PM) UTC RSOE


Ireland: W Cork Measles Outbreak – 17 more cases

Ireland: W Cork Measles Outbreak – 17 more cases

Seventeen new case of measles have been reported during the last six days in an outbreak in southern Ireland.

The total number of confirmed cases in West Cork, Ireland, stands at 42.

Public health officials are urging parents to make certain their children are fully protected against the highly infectious illness, according to

At the moment, the best way to ensure safety is to ensure that babies are not exposed to older children who may not be vaccinated and who are incubating the disease, Dr. Fiona Ryan, a consultant in public health medicine, said, reports.

Some cases have unvaccinated brothers and sisters, so they are very likely to become infected.

Unfortunately the symptoms are very non-specific before they get the rash.

Two doses of the MMR vaccine are recommended, with the first dose to be given at 12 months of age and the second between the ages of four and five.

Children or teenagers who have not received both doses of the vaccine can have it administered by a general practitioner free of charge.

Those affected in the outbreak have mainly been teenagers, but children under the age of 12 months are considered especially at risk.

We have a worry that it will spread to other children, Ryan said, according to
We are expecting more cases.In West Cork, we have quite a number of children that havent been vaccinated.
There are so many unvaccinated that you are getting a lot of spread. Its a very, very infectious disease.

The nationwide MMR vaccination rate in Ireland for children aged 24 months is 92 percent, but in West Cork 14 percent of children at that age remain unvaccinated.

Saturday, 26 May, 2012 at 05:27 (05:27 AM) UTC RSOE


Ireland: 25 unvaccinated, mostly teens infected in latest measles outbreak in Cork

The latest outbreak of measles in the Republic has occurred in west Cork, the Health Service Executive said yesterday.

Twenty-five children, mainly teenagers aged 12-18, have been diagnosed with the viral illness in the last four weeks.

None of those infected had been immunised with the MMR vaccine, which protects against mumps, measles and rubella, public health doctors confirmed.

MMR immunisation rates here have still not recovered following discredited research in 1998 linking the vaccine with bowel disease and autism.

Dr Fiona Ryan, specialist in public health medicine at HSE South, said, “This outbreak is affecting children who are not vaccinated. Siblings of children with measles, if not vaccinated, are also recommended to stay out of school or childcare during the incubation period (usually about 14 days but may be up to 21 days), to ensure that they do not transmit infection to other children who may be too young for vaccination or be at increased risk due to other conditions.”She urged parents of children who are not immunised to attend for vaccination.

MMR given to a child within 72 hours of exposure to measles may prevent the illness. The vaccine can prevent measles in more than 90 per cent of immunised children, following a single dose of the vaccine.

With a second dose of MMR vaccine, more than 99 per cent of immunised children are protected from measles infection.This vaccine is given free by family doctors to children aged 12-15 months, and a second dose is given at school entry.

MMR vaccination is also recommended for children aged 11-12 years who have not received two previous doses of MMR.Symptoms of measles develop nine to 11 days after becoming infected.

The first symptoms include irritability, a runny nose, red eyes, a hacking cough and a fever. These symptoms may last up to eight days.

A skin rash, consisting of flat red or brown blotches, starts from day four. It usually starts on the forehead and spreads downwards over the face, neck and body and lasts from four to seven days.

About one in 20 of those infected will get pneumonia, one in 1,000 will get encephalitis (brain inflammation) and between one and two in 1,000 will die from measles.

The latest annual report from the Health Protection Surveillance Centre showed a 149 per cent increase in measles cases in Ireland in 2010, with 403 cases notified compared with 162 cases in 2009.

About one-quarter of the 2010 cases required hospitalisation. Cases predominantly occurred in children who had not been vaccinated in what the surveillance centre said was a “worrying number of measles outbreaks in Ireland and Europe”.

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reported a recent measles outbreak in Ukraine, prompting a warning to soccer fans planning to travel there for next month’s European Championships to ensure they are fully immunised.

Tuesday, 15 May, 2012 at 04:05 (04:05 AM) UTC RSOE

%d bloggers like this: